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this code is only needed for pre-2.6 kernels, which are not actually
supported anyway, and was never tested. the fallback path using
SYS_modify_ldt failed to clear the upper bits of %eax (all ones due to
SYS_set_thread_area's return value being an error) before modifying
%al to attempt a new syscall.
previously, dynamic loading of new libraries with thread-local storage
allocated the storage needed for all existing threads at load-time,
precluding late failure that can't be handled, but left installation
in existing threads to take place lazily on first access. this imposed
an additional memory access and branch on every dynamic tls access,
and imposed a requirement, which was not actually met, that the
dynamic tlsdesc asm functions preserve all call-clobbered registers
before calling C code to to install new dynamic tls on first access.
the x86[_64] versions of this code wrongly omitted saving and
restoring of fpu/vector registers, assuming the compiler would not
generate anything using them in the called C code. the arm and aarch64
versions saved known existing registers, but failed to be future-proof
against expansion of the register file.
now that we track live threads in a list, it's possible to install the
new dynamic tls for each thread at dlopen time. for the most part,
synchronization is not needed, because if a thread has not
synchronized with completion of the dlopen, there is no way it can
meaningfully request access to a slot past the end of the old dtv,
which remains valid for accessing slots which already existed.
however, it is necessary to ensure that, if a thread sees its new dtv
pointer, it sees correct pointers in each of the slots that existed
prior to the dlopen. my understanding is that, on most real-world
coherency architectures including all the ones we presently support, a
built-in consume order guarantees this; however, don't rely on that.
instead, the SYS_membarrier syscall is used to ensure that all threads
see the stores to the slots of their new dtv prior to the installation
of the new dtv. if it is not supported, the same is implemented in
userspace via signals, using the same mechanism as __synccall.
the __tls_get_addr function, variants, and dynamic tlsdesc asm
functions are all updated to remove the fallback paths for claiming
new dynamic tls, and are now all branch-free.
this is not a public interface, and does not even necessarily match
the syscall on all archs that have a syscall by that name.
on archs where it's implemented in C, no action on the source file is
needed; the hidden declaration in pthread_arch.h suffices.
these are not a public interface and are not intended to be callable
from anywhere but the public clone function or other places in libc.
commit f630df09b1fd954eda16e2f779da0b5ecc9d80d3 added logic to handle
the case where __set_thread_area is called more than once by reusing
the GDT slot already in the %gs register, and only setting up a new
GDT slot when %gs is zero. this created a hidden assumption that %gs
is zero when a new process image starts, which is true in practice on
Linux, but does not seem to be documented ABI, and fails to hold under
qemu app-level emulation.
while it would in theory be possible to zero %gs in the entry point
code, this code is shared between static and dynamic binaries, and
dynamic binaries must not clobber the value of %gs already setup by
the dynamic linker.
the alternative solution implemented in this commit simply uses global
data to store the GDT index that's selected. __set_thread_area should
only be called in the initial thread anyway (subsequent threads get
their thread pointer setup by __clone), but even if it were called by
another thread, it would simply read and write back the same GDT index
that was already assigned to the initial thread, and thus (in the x86
memory model) there is no data race.
previously, the dynamic tlsdesc lookup functions and the i386
special-ABI ___tls_get_addr (3 underscores) function called
__tls_get_addr when the slot they wanted was not already setup;
__tls_get_addr would then in turn also see that it's not setup and
calling __tls_get_new directly is both more efficient and avoids the
issue of calling a non-hidden (public API/ABI) function from asm.
for the special i386 function, a weak reference to __tls_get_new is
used since this function is not defined when static linking (the code
path that needs it is unreachable in static-linked programs).
in a few places, non-hidden symbols were referenced from asm in ways
that assumed ld-time binding. while these is no semantic reason these
symbols need to be hidden, fixing the references without making them
hidden was going to be ugly, and hidden reduces some bloat anyway.
in the asm files, .global/.hidden directives have been moved to the
top to unclutter the actual code.
previously a new GDT slot was requested, even if one had already been
obtained by a previous call. instead extract the old slot number from
GS and reuse it if it was already set. the formula (GS-3)/8 for the
slot number automatically yields -1 (request for new slot) if GS is
such kernels cannot support threads, but the thread pointer is also
important for other purposes, most notably stack protector. without a
valid thread pointer, all code compiled with stack protector will
crash. the same applies to any use of thread-local storage by
applications or libraries.
the concept of this patch is to fall back to using the modify_ldt
syscall, which has been around since linux 1.0, to setup the gs
segment register. since the kernel does not have a way to
automatically assign ldt entries, use of slot zero is hard-coded. if
this fallback path is used, __set_thread_area returns a positive value
(rather than the usual zero for success, or negative for error)
indicating to the caller that the thread pointer was successfully set,
but only for the main thread, and that thread creation will not work
properly. the code in __init_tp has been changed accordingly to record
this result for later use by pthread_create.
The architecture-specific assembly versions of clone did not set errno on
failure, which is inconsistent with glibc. __clone still returns the error
via its return value, and clone is now a wrapper that sets errno as needed.
The public clone has also been moved to src/linux, as it's not directly
related to the pthreads API.
__clone is called by pthread_create, which does not report errors via
errno. Though not strictly necessary, it's nice to avoid clobbering errno
this code will not work yet because the necessary relocations are not
supported, and cannot be supported without some internal changes to
how relocation processing works (coming soon).
stale state information indicating that a thread was possibly blocked
at a cancellation point could get left behind if longjmp was used to
exit a signal handler that interrupted a cancellation point.
to fix the issue, we throw away the state information entirely and
simply compare the saved instruction pointer to a range of code
addresses in the __syscall_cp_asm function. all the ugly PIC work
(which becomes minimal anyway with this approach) is defered to
cancellation time instead of happening at every syscall, which should
improve performance too.
this commit also fixes cancellation on arm, which was mildly broken
(race condition, not checking cancellation flag once inside the
cancellation point zone). apparently i forgot to implement that. the
new arm code is untested, but appears correct; i'll test and fix it
later if there are problems.
the old abi was intended to duplicate glibc's abi at the expense of
being ugly and slow, but it turns out glib was not even using that abi
except on non-gcc-compatible compilers (which it doesn't even support)
and was instead using an exceptions-in-c/unwind-based approach whose
abi we could not duplicate anyway without nasty dwarf2/unwind
the new abi is copied from a very old glibc abi, which seems to still
be supported/present in current glibc. it avoids all unwinding,
whether by sjlj or exceptions, and merely maintains a linked list of
cleanup functions to be called from the context of pthread_exit. i've
made some care to ensure that longjmp out of a cleanup function should
work, even though it is not required to.
this change breaks abi compatibility with programs which were using
pthread cancellation, which is unfortunate, but that's why i'm making
the change now rather than later. considering that most pthread
features have not been usable until recently anyway, i don't see it as
a major issue at this point.
several things are changed. first, i have removed the old __uniclone
function signature and replaced it with the "standard" linux
__clone/clone signature. this was necessary to expose clone to
applications anyway, and it makes it easier to port __clone to new
archs, since it's now testable independently of pthread_create.
secondly, i have removed all references to the ugly ldt descriptor
structure (i386 only) from the c code and pthread structure. in places
where it is needed, it is now created on the stack just when it's
needed, in assembly code. thus, the i386 __clone function takes the
desired thread pointer as its argument, rather than an ldt descriptor
pointer, just like on all other sane archs. this should not affect
applications since there is really no way an application can use clone
with threads/tls in a way that doesn't horribly conflict with and
clobber the underlying implementation's use. applications are expected
to use clone only for creating actual processes, possibly with new
namespace features and whatnot.
cleanup push and pop are also no-ops if pthread_exit is not reachable.
this can make a big difference for library code which needs to protect
itself against cancellation, but which is unlikely to actually be used
in programs with threads/cancellation.
previously, pthread_cleanup_push/pop were pulling in all of
pthread_create due to dependency on the __pthread_unwind_next
function. this was not needed, as cancellation cleanup handlers can
never be called unless pthread_exit or pthread_cancel is reachable.
this seems to be necessary to make the linker accept the functions in
a shared library (perhaps to generate PLT entries?)
strictly speaking libc-internal asm should not need it. i might clean
that up later.
these are useless and have caused problems for users trying to build
with non-gnu tools like tcc's assembler.
x86_64 was just plain wrong in the cancel-flag-already-set path, and
the more subtle error was not clearing the saved stack pointer before
returning to c code. this could result in the signal handler
misidentifying c code as the pre-syscall part of the asm, and acting
on cancellation at the wrong time, and thus resource leak race
also, now __cancel (in the c code) is responsible for clearing the
saved sp in the already-cancelled branch. this means we have to use
call rather than jmp to ensure the stack pointer in the c will never
match what the asm saved.
signals were wrongly left masked, and cancellability state was not
switched to disabled, during the execution of cleanup handlers.
this patch improves the correctness, simplicity, and size of
cancellation-related code. modulo any small errors, it should now be
completely conformant, safe, and resource-leak free.
the notion of entering and exiting cancellation-point context has been
completely eliminated and replaced with alternative syscall assembly
code for cancellable syscalls. the assembly is responsible for setting
up execution context information (stack pointer and address of the
syscall instruction) which the cancellation signal handler can use to
determine whether the interrupted code was in a cancellable state.
these changes eliminate race conditions in the previous generation of
cancellation handling code (whereby a cancellation request received
just prior to the syscall would not be processed, leaving the syscall
to block, potentially indefinitely), and remedy an issue where
non-cancellable syscalls made from signal handlers became cancellable
if the signal handler interrupted a cancellation point.
x86_64 asm is untested and may need a second try to get it right.
glibc made the ridiculous choice to use pass-by-register calling
convention for these functions, which is impossible to duplicate
directly on non-gcc compilers. instead, we use ugly asm to wrap and
convert the calling convention. presumably this works with every
compiler anyone could potentially want to use.
the existence of a (kernelspace) thread must never have observable
effects after the thread count is decremented. if signals are not
blocked, it could end up handling the signal for rsyscall and
contributing towards the count of threads which have changed ids,
causing a thread to be missed. this could lead to one thread retaining
unwanted privilege level.
this change may also address other subtle race conditions in
application code that uses signals.