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commit 246f1c811448f37a44b41cd8df8d0ef9736d95f4 inadvertently
introduced the local variable p as static by declaring it together
with lfs64_list. the function is only reachable under lock, and is not
called reentrantly, so this is not a functional bug, but it is
confusing and inefficient. fix by separating the declarations.
mips has its own mechanisms for DT_DEBUG because it makes _DYNAMIC
read-only, and the original mechanism, DT_MIPS_RLD_MAP, was
PIE-incompatible. DT_MIPS_RLD_MAP_REL was added to remedy this, but we
never implemented support for it. add it now using the same idioms for
mips-specific ldso logic.
when PAGE_SIZE is not constant, internal/libc.h defines it to expand
to libc.page_size. however, kernel_mapped_dso, reachable from stage 2
of the dynamic linker bootstrap (__dls2), needs PAGE_SIZE to interpret
the relro range. at this point the libc object is both uninitialized
and invalid to access according to our model for bootstrapping, which
does not assume any external-linkage objects are accessible until
stages 2b/3. in practice it likely worked because hidden visibility
tends to behave like internal linkage, but this is not a property that
the dynamic linker was designed to rely upon.
this bug likely manifested as relro malfunction on archs with variable
page size, due to incorrect mask when aligning the relro bounds to
while there are certainly more direct ways to fix the known problem
point here, a maximally future-proof way is to just bypass the libc.h
PAGE_SIZE definition in the dynamic linker and instead have dynlink.c
define its own internal-linkage object for variable page size. then,
if anything else in stage 2 ever ends up referencing PAGE_SIZE, it
will just automatically work right.
this is analogous to skip_relative logic in do_relocs -- because
relative relocations for the dynamic linker itself were already
performed at entry (stage 1), they must not be applied again.
originally the namespace-infringing "large file support" interfaces
were included as part of glibc-ABI-compat, with the intent that they
not be used for linking, since our off_t is and always has been
unconditionally 64-bit and since we usually do not aim to support
nonstandard interfaces when there is an equivalent standard interface.
unfortunately, having the symbols present and available for linking
caused configure scripts to detect them and attempt to use them
without declarations, producing all the expected ill effects that
as a result, commit 2dd8d5e1b8ba1118ff1782e96545cb8a2318592c was made
to prevent this, using macros to redirect the LFS64 names to the
standard names, conditional on _GNU_SOURCE or _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE.
however, this has turned out to be a source of further problems,
especially since g++ defines _GNU_SOURCE by default. in particular,
the presence of these names as macros breaks a lot of valid code.
this commit removes all the LFS64 symbols and replaces them with a
mechanism in the dynamic linker symbol lookup failure path to retry
with the spurious "64" removed from the symbol name. in the future,
if/when the rest of glibc-ABI-compat is moved out of libc, this can be
commit d32dadd60efb9d3b255351a3b532f8e4c3dd0db1 added DT_RELR
processing for programs and shared libraries processed by the dynamic
linker, but left them unsupported in the dynamic linker itseld and in
static pie binaries, which self-relocate via code in dlstart.c.
add the equivalent processing to this code path so that there are not
arbitrary restrictions on where the new packed relative relocation
form can be used.
breaking out of the switch-case when l==-1 means the conditional below
will necessarily be true (-1 >= buf_size, a size_t variable) and the
function will return 0. it is, however, somewhat unclear that that's
what's happening. simply returning there is simpler
the way RELR is applied is not a meaningful operation for FDPIC (there
is no single "base" address). it seems unlikely RELR would ever be
added for FDPIC, but if it ever is, the behavior and possibly data
format will need to be different, so guard against calling the
this resolves DT_RELR relocations in non-ldso, dynamic-linked objects.
while the error handling function should not be reached in stage 2
(assuming ldso itself was linked correctly), this was not statically
determinate from the compiler's perspective, and in theory a compiler
performing LTO could lift the TLS references (errno and other things)
out of the printf-family functions called in a stage where TLS is not
instead, perform the call via a static-storage, internal-linkage
function pointer which will be set to a no-op function until the stage
where the real error handling function should be reachable.
inspired by commit 63c67053a3e42e9dff788de432f82ff07d4d772a.
if LTO is enabled, gcc hoists the call to ___errno_location outside the
loop even though the access to errno is gated behind head != &ldso
because ___errno_location is marked __attribute__((const)). this causes
the program to crash because TLS is not yet initialized when called from
__dls2. this is also possible if LTO is not enabled; even though gcc 11
doesn't do it, it is still wrong to use errno here.
since the start and end are already aligned, we can simply call
__syscall instead of using global errno.
Fixes: e13a2b8953ef ("implement PT_GNU_RELRO support")
the function already returns (void *)
__tls_get_addr should not be called with an invalid TLS module id of
0. in practice it probably "works", returning the DTV length as if it
were a pointer, and the callback should probably not inspect
dlpi_tls_data in this case, but it's likely that some real-world
callbacks use a check on dlpi_tls_data being non-null, rather than on
dlpi_tls_modid being nonzero, to conclude that the module has TLS.
dl_iterate_phdr was wrongly reporting the address of the DSO's PT_TLS
image rather than the calling thread's instance of the TLS. the man
page, which is essentially normative for a nonstandard function of
this sort, clearly specifies the latter. it does not clarify where
exactly within/relative-to the image the pointer should point, but the
reasonable thing to do is match the ABI's DTP offset, and this seems
to be what other implementations do.
reportedly the GNU linker can emit such segments, causing spurious
failure to load due to mmap with a length of zero producing EINVAL.
no action is required for such a load map (it's effectively a nop in
the program headers table) so just treat it as always successful.
as the outcome of Austin Group tracker issue #62, future editions of
POSIX have dropped the requirement that fork be AS-safe. this allows
but does not require implementations to synchronize fork with internal
locks and give forked children of multithreaded parents a partly or
fully unrestricted execution environment where they can continue to
use the standard library (per POSIX, they can only portably use
up until recently, taking this allowance did not seem desirable.
however, commit 8ed2bd8bfcb4ea6448afb55a941f4b5b2b0398c0 exposed the
extent to which applications and libraries are depending on the
ability to use malloc and other non-AS-safe interfaces in MT-forked
children, by converting latent very-low-probability catastrophic state
corruption into predictable deadlock. dealing with the fallout has
been a huge burden for users/distros.
while it looks like most of the non-portable usage in applications
could be fixed given sufficient effort, at least some of it seems to
occur in language runtimes which are exposing the ability to run
unrestricted code in the child as part of the contract with the
programmer. any attempt at fixing such contracts is not just a
technical problem but a social one, and is probably not tractable.
this patch extends the fork function to take locks for all libc
singletons in the parent, and release or reset those locks in the
child, so that when the underlying fork operation takes place, the
state protected by these locks is consistent and ready for the child
to use. locking is skipped in the case where the parent is
single-threaded so as not to interfere with legacy AS-safety property
of fork in single-threaded programs. lock order is mostly arbitrary,
but the malloc locks (including bump allocator in case it's used) must
be taken after the locks on any subsystems that might use malloc, and
non-AS-safe locks cannot be taken while the thread list lock is held,
imposing a requirement that it be taken last.
this change lifts undocumented restrictions on calls by replacement
mallocs to libc functions that might take these locks, and sets the
stage for lifting restrictions on the child execution environment
after multithreaded fork.
care is taken to #define macros to replace all four functions (malloc,
calloc, realloc, free) even if not all of them will be used, using an
undefined symbol name for the ones intended not to be used so that any
inadvertent future use will be caught at compile time rather than
directed to the wrong implementation.
the only place stdio was used here was for reading the ldso path file,
taking advantage of getdelim to automatically allocate and resize the
buffer. the motivation for use here was that, with shared libraries,
stdio is already available anyway and free to use. this has long been
a nuisance to users because getdelim's use of realloc here triggered a
valgrind bug, but removing it doesn't really fix that; on some archs
even calling the valgrind-interposed malloc at this point will crash.
the actual motivation for this change is moving towards getting rid of
use of application-provided malloc in parts of libc where it would be
called with libc-internal locks held, leading to the possibility of
deadlock if the malloc implementation doesn't follow unwritten rules
about which libc functions are safe for it to call. since getdelim is
required to produce a pointer as if by malloc (i.e. that can be passed
to reallor or free), it necessarily must use the public malloc.
instead of performing a realloc loop as the path file is read, first
query its size with fstat and allocate only once. this produces
slightly different truncation behavior when racing with writes to a
file, but neither behavior is or could be made safe anyway; on a live
system, ldso path files should be replaced by atomic rename only. the
change should also reduce memory waste.
Otherwise lldb doesn't notice the new library and stack traces
containing it get cut off unhelpfully.
commit 188759bbee057aa94db2bbb7cf7f5855f3b9ab53 documented the intent
to allow recursive dlopen based on tracking ctor_visitor, but used a
kernel tid rather than the pthread_t to identify the caller. as a
result, it would not behave as intended under fork by a ctor, where
the child tid would not match.
queue_ctors should not be called with the init_fini_lock held, since
it may longjmp out on allocation failure. this introduces a minor
TOCTOU race with p->constructed, but one already exists further down
anyway, and by design it's okay to run through the queue more than
once anyway. the only reason we bother to check p->constructed at all
is to avoid spurious failure of dlopen when the library is already
fully loaded and constructed.
dtv_copy, canary2, and canary_at_end existed solely to match multiple
ABI and asm-accessed layouts simultaneously. now that pthread_arch.h
can be included before struct __pthread is defined, the struct layout
can depend on macros defined by pthread_arch.h.
this is in preparation for improving behavior of malloc interposition.
this eliminates consumers of malloc_impl.h outside of the malloc
as a result of commit b6a6cd703ffefa6352249fb01f4da28d85d17306,
the REL_NONE case is now redundant.
the bug fixed in commit b82cd6c78d812d38c31febba5a9e57dbaa7919c4 was
mostly masked on arm because __hwcap was zero at the point of the call
from the dynamic linker to __set_thread_area, causing the access to
libc.auxv to be skipped and kuser_helper versions of TLS access and
atomics to be used instead of the armv6 or v7 versions. however, on
kernels with kuser_helper removed for hardening it would crash.
since __set_thread_area potentially uses __hwcap, it must be
initialized before the function is called. move the AT_HWCAP lookup
from stage 3 to stage 2b.
at least gcc 9 broke execution of DT_INIT/DT_FINI for fdpic archs
(presently only sh) by recognizing that the stores to the
compound-literal function descriptor constructed to call them were
dead stores. there's no way to make a "may_alias function", so instead
launder the descriptor through an asm-statement barrier. in practice
just making the compound literal volatile seemed to have worked too,
but this should be less of a hack and more accurately convey the
semantics of what transformations are not valid.
commit 1c84c99913bf1cd47b866ed31e665848a0da84a2 moved the call to
__init_tp above the initialization of libc.auxv, inadvertently
breaking archs where __set_thread_area examines auxv for the sake of
determining the TLS/atomic model needed at runtime. this broke armv6
this interface contract is entirely internal to dynlink.c.
if symbols are being redirected to provide the new time64 ABI, dlsym
must perform matching redirections; otherwise, it would poke a hole in
the magic and return pointers to functions that are not safe to call
from a caller using time64 types.
rather than duplicating a table of redirections, use the time64
symbols present in libc's symbol table to derive the decision for
whether a particular symbol needs to be redirected.
commit ffab43602b5900c86b7040abdda8ccf6cdec95f5 broke this by moving
relocations after not only the allocation of storage for the main
thread's static TLS, but after the copying of the TLS image. thus,
relocation results were not reflected in the main thread's copy. this
could be fixed by calling __reset_tls after relocations, but instead
split the allocation and installation before/after relocations so that
there's not a redundant copy.
due to commit 71af5309874269bcc9e4b84ea716fab33d888c1d, updating of
static_tls_cnt needs to be kept with allocation of static TLS, before
relocations, rather than after installation.
Using common code path for all symbol lookups fixes three dlsym issues:
- st_shndx of STT_TLS symbols were not checked and thus an undefined
tls symbol reference could be incorrectly treated as a definition
(the sysv hash lookup returns undefined symbols, gnu does not, so should
be rare in practice).
- symbol binding was not checked so a hidden symbol may be returned
(in principle STB_LOCAL symbols may appear in the dynamic symbol table
for hidden symbols, but linkers most likely don't produce it).
- mips specific behaviour was not applied (ARCH_SYM_REJECT_UND) so
undefined symbols may be returned on mips.
always_inline is used to avoid relocation performance regression, the
code generation for find_sym should not be affected.
commit 7a9669e977e5f750cf72ccbd2614f8b72ce02c4c added use of the
symbol reference as the definition, in place of performing a lookup,
for STT_SECTION symbol references that were first found used in FDPIC.
such references may happen in certain other cases, such as
local-dynamic TLS and with relocation types that require a symbol but
that are being used for non-symbolic purposes, like the powerpc
unaligned address relocations.
in all such cases I'm aware of, the symbol referenced is a section
symbol (STT_SECTION); however, the important semantic property is not
its being a section, but rather its binding local (STB_LOCAL). check
the latter instead of the former for greater generality and semantic
R_PPC_UADDR32 (R_PPC64_UADDR64) has the same meaning as R_PPC_ADDR32
(R_PPC64_ADDR64), except that its address need not be aligned. For
powerpc64, BFD ld(1) will automatically convert between ADDR<->UADDR
relocations when the address is/isn't at its native alignment. This
will happen if, for example, there is a pointer in a packed struct.
gold and lld do not currently generate R_PPC64_UADDR64, but pass
through misaligned R_PPC64_ADDR64 relocations from object files,
possibly relaxing them to misaligned R_PPC64_RELATIVE. In both cases
(relaxed or not) this violates the PSABI, which defines the relevant
field type as "a 64-bit field occupying 8 bytes, the alignment of
which is 8 bytes unless otherwise specified."
All three linkers violate the PSABI on 32-bit powerpc, where the only
difference is that the field is 32 bits wide, aligned to 4 bytes.
Currently musl fails to load executables linked by BFD ld containing
R_PPC64_UADDR64, with the error "unsupported relocation type 43".
This change provides compatibility with BFD ld on powerpc64, and any
static linker on either architecture that starts following the PSABI
as a result of commit ffab43602b5900c86b7040abdda8ccf6cdec95f5,
static_tls_cnt is now valid during relocations at program startup, so
it's no longer necessary to condition the check against static_tls_cnt
on this being a runtime (dlopen) relocation.
this is analogous to commit 2f1f51ae7b2d78247568e7fdb8462f3c19e469a4,
and should have been caught at the same time since it was right next
to the code moved in that commit. between final stage 3 reloc_all and
the jump to the main program's entry point, it is not valid to call
any functions which may be interposed by the application; doing so
results in execution of application code before ctors have run, and on
fdpic archs, before the main program's fdpic self-fixups have taken
place, which will produce runaway wrong execution.
commit c8b49b2fbc7faa8bf065220f11963d76c8a2eb93 introduced code that
checked bestsym to determine whether a matching symbol was found, but
bestsym is uninitialized if not. instead use best, consistent with use
in the rest of the function.
simplified from bug report and patch by Cheng Liu.
after commit a48ccc159a5fa061a18419296100ee48a1cd6cc9 removed the use
of _Noreturn on the stage3_func type (which only worked due to it
being defined to the "GNU C" attribute in C99 mode), GCC could no
longer assume that the ends of __dls2 and __dls2b are unreachable, and
produced a warning that a function marked _Noreturn returns.
also, since commit 4390383b32250a941ec616e8bff6f568a801b1c0, the
_Noreturn declaration for __libc_start_main in crt1/rcrt1 has been not
only inconsistent with the definition, but wrong. formally,
__libc_start_main does return, via a (hopefully) tail call to a helper
function after the barrier. incorrect usage of _Noreturn in the
declaration was probably formal UB.
the _Noreturn specifiers were not useful in any of these places, so
remove them all. now, the only remaining usage of _Noreturn is in
public interfaces where _Noreturn is part of their contract.
currently the bfd linker does not seem to create tls segments where
p_vaddr%p_align != 0, but this is valid in ELF and then the runtime
computed tls offset must satisfy
offset%p_align == (base+p_vaddr)%p_align
and in case of local exec tls (main executable) the smallest such
offset must be used (otherwise it is incompatible with the offset
computed by the static linker). the !TLS_ABOVE_TP case is handled
correctly (the offset is negative then in the formula).
the ldso code for TLS_ABOVE_TP is changed so the static tls offset
of each module satisfies the formula.
tls_offset should always point to the end of the allocated static tls
area, but this was not handled correctly on "tls variant 1" targets
in the dynamic linker:
after application tls was allocated, tls_offset was aligned up,
potentially wasting tls space. (alignment may be needed at the
begining of the tls area, not at the end, but that will be fixed
separately as it is unlikely to affect real binaries.)
when static tls was allocated for a shared library, tls_offset was
only updated with the size of the tls segment which does not include
alignment gaps, which can easily happen if the tls size update for
one library leaves tls_offset misaligned for the next one. this can
cause oob access in __copy_tls or arbitrary breakage at tls access.
(the issue was observed on aarch64 with rust binaries)
maintainer's note: commit 9d44b6460ab603487dab4d916342d9ba4467e6b9
removed their use.
this is the first part of a series of patches intended to make
__syscall fully self-contained in the object file produced using
syscall.h, which will make it possible for crt1 code to perform
the (confusingly named) i386 __vsyscall mechanism, which this commit
removes, was introduced before the presence of a valid thread pointer
was mandatory; back then the thread pointer was setup lazily only if
threads were used. the intent was to be able to perform syscalls using
the kernel's fast entry point in the VDSO, which can use the sysenter
(Intel) or syscall (AMD) instruction instead of int $128, but without
inlining an access to the __syscall global at the point of each
syscall, which would incur a significant size cost from PIC setup
everywhere. the mechanism also shuffled registers/calling convention
around to avoid spills of call-saved registers, and to avoid
allocating ebx or ebp via asm constraints, since there are plenty of
broken-but-supported compiler versions which are incapable of
allocating ebx with -fPIC or ebp with -fno-omit-frame-pointer.
the new mechanism preserves the properties of avoiding spills and
avoiding allocation of ebx/ebp in constraints, but does it inline,
using some fairly simple register shuffling, and uses a field of the
thread structure rather than global data for the vdso-provided syscall
for now, the external __syscall function is refactored not to use the
old __vsyscall so it can be kept, but the intent is to remove it too.
this affected the error path where dlopen successfully found and
loaded the requested dso and all its dependencies, but failed to
resolve one or more relocations, causing the operation to fail after
storage for the ctor queue was allocated.
commit 188759bbee057aa94db2bbb7cf7f5855f3b9ab53 wrongly put the free
for the ctor_queue array in the error path inside a loop over each
loaded dso that needed to be backed-out, rather than just doing it
once. in addition, the exit path also observed the ctor_queue pointer
still being nonzero, and would attempt to call ctors on the backed-out
dsos unless the double-free crashed the process first.
together with the previous two commits, this completes restoration of
the property that dynamic-linked apps with no external deps and no tls
have no failure paths before entry.
neither has or can have any dependencies, but since commit
403555690775f7c8806372644f543518e6664e3b, gratuitous zero-length deps
arrays were being allocated for them. use a dummy array instead.
traditionally, we've provided a guarantee that dynamic-linked
applications with no external dependencies (nothing but libc) and no
thread-local storage have no failure paths before the entry point.
normally, thanks to reclaim_gaps, such a malloc will not require a
syscall anyway, but if segment alignment is unlucky, it might. use a
builtin array for this common special case.
in the case where malloc is being replaced, it's not valid to call
malloc between final relocations and main app's crt1 entry point; on
fdpic archs the main app's entry point will not yet have performed the
self-fixups necessary to call its code.
to fix, reorder queue_ctors before final relocations. an alternative
solution would be doing the allocation from __libc_start_init, after
the entry point but before any ctors run. this is less desirable,
since it would leave a call to malloc that might be provided by the
application happening at startup when doing so can be easily avoided.
previously, going way back, there was simply no synchronization here.
a call to exit concurrent with ctor execution from dlopen could cause
a dtor to execute concurrently with its corresponding ctor, or could
cause dtors for newly-constructed libraries to be skipped.
introduce a shutting_down state that blocks further ctor execution,
producing the quiescence the dtor execution loop needs to ensure any
kind of consistency, and that blocks further calls to dlopen so that a
call into dlopen from a dtor cannot deadlock.
better approaches to some of this may be possible, but the changes
here at least make things safe.