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path: root/src/regex/regcomp.c
blob: 4cdaa1eabb847724f88171bd07e495ef176be9bc (plain)
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/*
  regcomp.c - TRE POSIX compatible regex compilation functions.

  Copyright (c) 2001-2009 Ville Laurikari <vl@iki.fi>
  All rights reserved.

  Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
  are met:

    1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

    2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
       documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

  THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER AND CONTRIBUTORS
  ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
  A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
  HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
  SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
  DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
  THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
  (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
  OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

*/

#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <regex.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <ctype.h>

#include "tre.h"

#include <assert.h>

/***********************************************************************
 from tre-compile.h
***********************************************************************/

typedef struct {
  int position;
  int code_min;
  int code_max;
  int *tags;
  int assertions;
  tre_ctype_t class;
  tre_ctype_t *neg_classes;
  int backref;
} tre_pos_and_tags_t;


/***********************************************************************
 from tre-ast.c and tre-ast.h
***********************************************************************/

/* The different AST node types. */
typedef enum {
  LITERAL,
  CATENATION,
  ITERATION,
  UNION
} tre_ast_type_t;

/* Special subtypes of TRE_LITERAL. */
#define EMPTY	  -1   /* Empty leaf (denotes empty string). */
#define ASSERTION -2   /* Assertion leaf. */
#define TAG	  -3   /* Tag leaf. */
#define BACKREF	  -4   /* Back reference leaf. */

#define IS_SPECIAL(x)	((x)->code_min < 0)
#define IS_EMPTY(x)	((x)->code_min == EMPTY)
#define IS_ASSERTION(x) ((x)->code_min == ASSERTION)
#define IS_TAG(x)	((x)->code_min == TAG)
#define IS_BACKREF(x)	((x)->code_min == BACKREF)


/* A generic AST node.  All AST nodes consist of this node on the top
   level with `obj' pointing to the actual content. */
typedef struct {
  tre_ast_type_t type;   /* Type of the node. */
  void *obj;             /* Pointer to actual node. */
  int nullable;
  int submatch_id;
  int num_submatches;
  int num_tags;
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *firstpos;
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *lastpos;
} tre_ast_node_t;


/* A "literal" node.  These are created for assertions, back references,
   tags, matching parameter settings, and all expressions that match one
   character. */
typedef struct {
  long code_min;
  long code_max;
  int position;
  tre_ctype_t class;
  tre_ctype_t *neg_classes;
} tre_literal_t;

/* A "catenation" node.	 These are created when two regexps are concatenated.
   If there are more than one subexpressions in sequence, the `left' part
   holds all but the last, and `right' part holds the last subexpression
   (catenation is left associative). */
typedef struct {
  tre_ast_node_t *left;
  tre_ast_node_t *right;
} tre_catenation_t;

/* An "iteration" node.	 These are created for the "*", "+", "?", and "{m,n}"
   operators. */
typedef struct {
  /* Subexpression to match. */
  tre_ast_node_t *arg;
  /* Minimum number of consecutive matches. */
  int min;
  /* Maximum number of consecutive matches. */
  int max;
  /* If 0, match as many characters as possible, if 1 match as few as
     possible.	Note that this does not always mean the same thing as
     matching as many/few repetitions as possible. */
  unsigned int minimal:1;
} tre_iteration_t;

/* An "union" node.  These are created for the "|" operator. */
typedef struct {
  tre_ast_node_t *left;
  tre_ast_node_t *right;
} tre_union_t;


static tre_ast_node_t *
tre_ast_new_node(tre_mem_t mem, int type, void *obj)
{
	tre_ast_node_t *node = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof *node);
	if (!node || !obj)
		return 0;
	node->obj = obj;
	node->type = type;
	node->nullable = -1;
	node->submatch_id = -1;
	return node;
}

static tre_ast_node_t *
tre_ast_new_literal(tre_mem_t mem, int code_min, int code_max, int position)
{
	tre_ast_node_t *node;
	tre_literal_t *lit;

	lit = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof *lit);
	node = tre_ast_new_node(mem, LITERAL, lit);
	if (!node)
		return 0;
	lit->code_min = code_min;
	lit->code_max = code_max;
	lit->position = position;
	return node;
}

static tre_ast_node_t *
tre_ast_new_iter(tre_mem_t mem, tre_ast_node_t *arg, int min, int max, int minimal)
{
	tre_ast_node_t *node;
	tre_iteration_t *iter;

	iter = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof *iter);
	node = tre_ast_new_node(mem, ITERATION, iter);
	if (!node)
		return 0;
	iter->arg = arg;
	iter->min = min;
	iter->max = max;
	iter->minimal = minimal;
	node->num_submatches = arg->num_submatches;
	return node;
}

static tre_ast_node_t *
tre_ast_new_union(tre_mem_t mem, tre_ast_node_t *left, tre_ast_node_t *right)
{
	tre_ast_node_t *node;
	tre_union_t *un;

	if (!left)
		return right;
	un = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof *un);
	node = tre_ast_new_node(mem, UNION, un);
	if (!node || !right)
		return 0;
	un->left = left;
	un->right = right;
	node->num_submatches = left->num_submatches + right->num_submatches;
	return node;
}

static tre_ast_node_t *
tre_ast_new_catenation(tre_mem_t mem, tre_ast_node_t *left, tre_ast_node_t *right)
{
	tre_ast_node_t *node;
	tre_catenation_t *cat;

	if (!left)
		return right;
	cat = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof *cat);
	node = tre_ast_new_node(mem, CATENATION, cat);
	if (!node)
		return 0;
	cat->left = left;
	cat->right = right;
	node->num_submatches = left->num_submatches + right->num_submatches;
	return node;
}


/***********************************************************************
 from tre-stack.c and tre-stack.h
***********************************************************************/

typedef struct tre_stack_rec tre_stack_t;

/* Creates a new stack object.	`size' is initial size in bytes, `max_size'
   is maximum size, and `increment' specifies how much more space will be
   allocated with realloc() if all space gets used up.	Returns the stack
   object or NULL if out of memory. */
static tre_stack_t *
tre_stack_new(int size, int max_size, int increment);

/* Frees the stack object. */
static void
tre_stack_destroy(tre_stack_t *s);

/* Returns the current number of objects in the stack. */
static int
tre_stack_num_objects(tre_stack_t *s);

/* Each tre_stack_push_*(tre_stack_t *s, <type> value) function pushes
   `value' on top of stack `s'.  Returns REG_ESPACE if out of memory.
   This tries to realloc() more space before failing if maximum size
   has not yet been reached.  Returns REG_OK if successful. */
#define declare_pushf(typetag, type)					      \
  static reg_errcode_t tre_stack_push_ ## typetag(tre_stack_t *s, type value)

declare_pushf(voidptr, void *);
declare_pushf(int, int);

/* Each tre_stack_pop_*(tre_stack_t *s) function pops the topmost
   element off of stack `s' and returns it.  The stack must not be
   empty. */
#define declare_popf(typetag, type)		  \
  static type tre_stack_pop_ ## typetag(tre_stack_t *s)

declare_popf(voidptr, void *);
declare_popf(int, int);

/* Just to save some typing. */
#define STACK_PUSH(s, typetag, value)					      \
  do									      \
    {									      \
      status = tre_stack_push_ ## typetag(s, value);			      \
    }									      \
  while (/*CONSTCOND*/0)

#define STACK_PUSHX(s, typetag, value)					      \
  {									      \
    status = tre_stack_push_ ## typetag(s, value);			      \
    if (status != REG_OK)						      \
      break;								      \
  }

#define STACK_PUSHR(s, typetag, value)					      \
  {									      \
    reg_errcode_t _status;						      \
    _status = tre_stack_push_ ## typetag(s, value);			      \
    if (_status != REG_OK)						      \
      return _status;							      \
  }

union tre_stack_item {
  void *voidptr_value;
  int int_value;
};

struct tre_stack_rec {
  int size;
  int max_size;
  int increment;
  int ptr;
  union tre_stack_item *stack;
};


static tre_stack_t *
tre_stack_new(int size, int max_size, int increment)
{
  tre_stack_t *s;

  s = xmalloc(sizeof(*s));
  if (s != NULL)
    {
      s->stack = xmalloc(sizeof(*s->stack) * size);
      if (s->stack == NULL)
	{
	  xfree(s);
	  return NULL;
	}
      s->size = size;
      s->max_size = max_size;
      s->increment = increment;
      s->ptr = 0;
    }
  return s;
}

static void
tre_stack_destroy(tre_stack_t *s)
{
  xfree(s->stack);
  xfree(s);
}

static int
tre_stack_num_objects(tre_stack_t *s)
{
  return s->ptr;
}

static reg_errcode_t
tre_stack_push(tre_stack_t *s, union tre_stack_item value)
{
  if (s->ptr < s->size)
    {
      s->stack[s->ptr] = value;
      s->ptr++;
    }
  else
    {
      if (s->size >= s->max_size)
	{
	  return REG_ESPACE;
	}
      else
	{
	  union tre_stack_item *new_buffer;
	  int new_size;
	  new_size = s->size + s->increment;
	  if (new_size > s->max_size)
	    new_size = s->max_size;
	  new_buffer = xrealloc(s->stack, sizeof(*new_buffer) * new_size);
	  if (new_buffer == NULL)
	    {
	      return REG_ESPACE;
	    }
	  assert(new_size > s->size);
	  s->size = new_size;
	  s->stack = new_buffer;
	  tre_stack_push(s, value);
	}
    }
  return REG_OK;
}

#define define_pushf(typetag, type)  \
  declare_pushf(typetag, type) {     \
    union tre_stack_item item;	     \
    item.typetag ## _value = value;  \
    return tre_stack_push(s, item);  \
}

define_pushf(int, int)
define_pushf(voidptr, void *)

#define define_popf(typetag, type)		    \
  declare_popf(typetag, type) {			    \
    return s->stack[--s->ptr].typetag ## _value;    \
  }

define_popf(int, int)
define_popf(voidptr, void *)


/***********************************************************************
 from tre-parse.c and tre-parse.h
***********************************************************************/

/* Parse context. */
typedef struct {
	/* Memory allocator. The AST is allocated using this. */
	tre_mem_t mem;
	/* Stack used for keeping track of regexp syntax. */
	tre_stack_t *stack;
	/* The parsed node after a parse function returns. */
	tre_ast_node_t *n;
	/* Position in the regexp pattern after a parse function returns. */
	const char *s;
	/* The first character of the regexp. */
	const char *re;
	/* Current submatch ID. */
	int submatch_id;
	/* Current position (number of literal). */
	int position;
	/* The highest back reference or -1 if none seen so far. */
	int max_backref;
	/* Compilation flags. */
	int cflags;
} tre_parse_ctx_t;

/* Some macros for expanding \w, \s, etc. */
static const struct {
	char c;
	const char *expansion;
} tre_macros[] = {
	{'t', "\t"}, {'n', "\n"}, {'r', "\r"},
	{'f', "\f"}, {'a', "\a"}, {'e', "\033"},
	{'w', "[[:alnum:]_]"}, {'W', "[^[:alnum:]_]"}, {'s', "[[:space:]]"},
	{'S', "[^[:space:]]"}, {'d', "[[:digit:]]"}, {'D', "[^[:digit:]]"},
	{ 0, 0 }
};

/* Expands a macro delimited by `regex' and `regex_end' to `buf', which
   must have at least `len' items.  Sets buf[0] to zero if the there
   is no match in `tre_macros'. */
static const char *tre_expand_macro(const char *s)
{
	int i;
	for (i = 0; tre_macros[i].c && tre_macros[i].c != *s; i++);
	return tre_macros[i].expansion;
}

static int
tre_compare_lit(const void *a, const void *b)
{
	const tre_literal_t *const *la = a;
	const tre_literal_t *const *lb = b;
	/* assumes the range of valid code_min is < INT_MAX */
	return la[0]->code_min - lb[0]->code_min;
}

struct literals {
	tre_mem_t mem;
	tre_literal_t **a;
	int len;
	int cap;
};

static tre_literal_t *tre_new_lit(struct literals *p)
{
	tre_literal_t **a;
	if (p->len >= p->cap) {
		if (p->cap >= 1<<15)
			return 0;
		p->cap *= 2;
		a = xrealloc(p->a, p->cap * sizeof *p->a);
		if (!a)
			return 0;
		p->a = a;
	}
	a = p->a + p->len++;
	*a = tre_mem_calloc(p->mem, sizeof **a);
	return *a;
}

static int add_icase_literals(struct literals *ls, int min, int max)
{
	tre_literal_t *lit;
	int b, e, c;
	for (c=min; c<=max; ) {
		/* assumes islower(c) and isupper(c) are exclusive
		   and toupper(c)!=c if islower(c).
		   multiple opposite case characters are not supported */
		if (tre_islower(c)) {
			b = e = tre_toupper(c);
			for (c++, e++; c<=max; c++, e++)
				if (tre_toupper(c) != e) break;
		} else if (tre_isupper(c)) {
			b = e = tre_tolower(c);
			for (c++, e++; c<=max; c++, e++)
				if (tre_tolower(c) != e) break;
		} else {
			c++;
			continue;
		}
		lit = tre_new_lit(ls);
		if (!lit)
			return -1;
		lit->code_min = b;
		lit->code_max = e-1;
		lit->position = -1;
	}
	return 0;
}


/* Maximum number of character classes in a negated bracket expression. */
#define MAX_NEG_CLASSES 64

struct neg {
	int negate;
	int len;
	tre_ctype_t a[MAX_NEG_CLASSES];
};

// TODO: parse bracket into a set of non-overlapping [lo,hi] ranges

/*
bracket grammar:
Bracket  =  '[' List ']'  |  '[^' List ']'
List     =  Term  |  List Term
Term     =  Char  |  Range  |  Chclass  |  Eqclass
Range    =  Char '-' Char  |  Char '-' '-'
Char     =  Coll  |  coll_single
Meta     =  ']'  |  '-'
Coll     =  '[.' coll_single '.]'  |  '[.' coll_multi '.]'  |  '[.' Meta '.]'
Eqclass  =  '[=' coll_single '=]'  |  '[=' coll_multi '=]'
Chclass  =  '[:' class ':]'

coll_single is a single char collating element but it can be
 '-' only at the beginning or end of a List and
 ']' only at the beginning of a List and
 '^' anywhere except after the openning '['
*/

static reg_errcode_t parse_bracket_terms(tre_parse_ctx_t *ctx, const char *s, struct literals *ls, struct neg *neg)
{
	const char *start = s;
	tre_ctype_t class;
	int min, max;
	wchar_t wc;
	int len;

	for (;;) {
		class = 0;
		len = mbtowc(&wc, s, -1);
		if (len <= 0)
			return *s ? REG_BADPAT : REG_EBRACK;
		if (*s == ']' && s != start) {
			ctx->s = s+1;
			return REG_OK;
		}
		if (*s == '-' && s != start && s[1] != ']' &&
		    /* extension: [a-z--@] is accepted as [a-z]|[--@] */
		    (s[1] != '-' || s[2] == ']'))
			return REG_ERANGE;
		if (*s == '[' && (s[1] == '.' || s[1] == '='))
			/* collating symbols and equivalence classes are not supported */
			return REG_ECOLLATE;
		if (*s == '[' && s[1] == ':') {
			char tmp[CHARCLASS_NAME_MAX+1];
			s += 2;
			for (len=0; len < CHARCLASS_NAME_MAX && s[len]; len++) {
				if (s[len] == ':') {
					memcpy(tmp, s, len);
					tmp[len] = 0;
					class = tre_ctype(tmp);
					break;
				}
			}
			if (!class || s[len+1] != ']')
				return REG_ECTYPE;
			min = 0;
			max = TRE_CHAR_MAX;
			s += len+2;
		} else {
			min = max = wc;
			s += len;
			if (*s == '-' && s[1] != ']') {
				s++;
				len = mbtowc(&wc, s, -1);
				max = wc;
				/* XXX - Should use collation order instead of
				   encoding values in character ranges. */
				if (len <= 0 || min > max)
					return REG_ERANGE;
				s += len;
			}
		}

		if (class && neg->negate) {
			if (neg->len >= MAX_NEG_CLASSES)
				return REG_ESPACE;
			neg->a[neg->len++] = class;
		} else  {
			tre_literal_t *lit = tre_new_lit(ls);
			if (!lit)
				return REG_ESPACE;
			lit->code_min = min;
			lit->code_max = max;
			lit->class = class;
			lit->position = -1;

			/* Add opposite-case codepoints if REG_ICASE is present.
			   It seems that POSIX requires that bracket negation
			   should happen before case-folding, but most practical
			   implementations do it the other way around. Changing
			   the order would need efficient representation of
			   case-fold ranges and bracket range sets even with
			   simple patterns so this is ok for now. */
			if (ctx->cflags & REG_ICASE && !class)
				if (add_icase_literals(ls, min, max))
					return REG_ESPACE;
		}
	}
}

static reg_errcode_t parse_bracket(tre_parse_ctx_t *ctx, const char *s)
{
	int i, max, min, negmax, negmin;
	tre_ast_node_t *node = 0, *n;
	tre_ctype_t *nc = 0;
	tre_literal_t *lit;
	struct literals ls;
	struct neg neg;
	reg_errcode_t err;

	ls.mem = ctx->mem;
	ls.len = 0;
	ls.cap = 32;
	ls.a = xmalloc(ls.cap * sizeof *ls.a);
	if (!ls.a)
		return REG_ESPACE;
	neg.len = 0;
	neg.negate = *s == '^';
	if (neg.negate)
		s++;

	err = parse_bracket_terms(ctx, s, &ls, &neg);
	if (err != REG_OK)
		goto parse_bracket_done;

	if (neg.negate) {
		/* Sort the array if we need to negate it. */
		qsort(ls.a, ls.len, sizeof *ls.a, tre_compare_lit);
		/* extra lit for the last negated range */
		lit = tre_new_lit(&ls);
		if (!lit) {
			err = REG_ESPACE;
			goto parse_bracket_done;
		}
		lit->code_min = TRE_CHAR_MAX+1;
		lit->code_max = TRE_CHAR_MAX+1;
		lit->position = -1;
		/* negated classes */
		if (neg.len) {
			nc = tre_mem_alloc(ctx->mem, (neg.len+1)*sizeof *neg.a);
			if (!nc) {
				err = REG_ESPACE;
				goto parse_bracket_done;
			}
			memcpy(nc, neg.a, neg.len*sizeof *neg.a);
			nc[neg.len] = 0;
		}
	}

	/* Build a union of the items in the array, negated if necessary. */
	negmax = negmin = 0;
	for (i = 0; i < ls.len; i++) {
		lit = ls.a[i];
		min = lit->code_min;
		max = lit->code_max;
		if (neg.negate) {
			if (min <= negmin) {
				/* Overlap. */
				negmin = MAX(max + 1, negmin);
				continue;
			}
			negmax = min - 1;
			lit->code_min = negmin;
			lit->code_max = negmax;
			negmin = max + 1;
		}
		lit->position = ctx->position;
		lit->neg_classes = nc;
		n = tre_ast_new_node(ctx->mem, LITERAL, lit);
		node = tre_ast_new_union(ctx->mem, node, n);
		if (!node) {
			err = REG_ESPACE;
			break;
		}
	}

parse_bracket_done:
	xfree(ls.a);
	ctx->position++;
	ctx->n = node;
	return err;
}

static const char *parse_dup_count(const char *s, int *n)
{
	*n = -1;
	if (!isdigit(*s))
		return s;
	*n = 0;
	for (;;) {
		*n = 10 * *n + (*s - '0');
		s++;
		if (!isdigit(*s) || *n > RE_DUP_MAX)
			break;
	}
	return s;
}

static reg_errcode_t parse_dup(tre_parse_ctx_t *ctx, const char *s)
{
	int min, max;

	s = parse_dup_count(s, &min);
	if (*s == ',')
		s = parse_dup_count(s+1, &max);
	else
		max = min;

	if (
		(max < min && max >= 0) ||
		max > RE_DUP_MAX ||
		min > RE_DUP_MAX ||
		min < 0 ||
		(!(ctx->cflags & REG_EXTENDED) && *s++ != '\\') ||
		*s++ != '}'
	)
		return REG_BADBR;

	if (min == 0 && max == 0)
		ctx->n = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, EMPTY, -1, -1);
	else
		ctx->n = tre_ast_new_iter(ctx->mem, ctx->n, min, max, 0);
	if (!ctx->n)
		return REG_ESPACE;
	ctx->s = s;
	return REG_OK;
}

static int hexval(unsigned c)
{
	if (c-'0'<10) return c-'0';
	c |= 32;
	if (c-'a'<6) return c-'a'+10;
	return -1;
}

static reg_errcode_t marksub(tre_parse_ctx_t *ctx, tre_ast_node_t *node, int subid)
{
	if (node->submatch_id >= 0) {
		tre_ast_node_t *n = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, EMPTY, -1, -1);
		if (!n)
			return REG_ESPACE;
		n = tre_ast_new_catenation(ctx->mem, n, node);
		if (!n)
			return REG_ESPACE;
		n->num_submatches = node->num_submatches;
		node = n;
	}
	node->submatch_id = subid;
	node->num_submatches++;
	ctx->n = node;
	return REG_OK;
}

/*
BRE grammar:
Regex  =  Branch  |  '^'  |  '$'  |  '^$'  |  '^' Branch  |  Branch '$'  |  '^' Branch '$'
Branch =  Atom  |  Branch Atom
Atom   =  char  |  quoted_char  |  '.'  |  Bracket  |  Atom Dup  |  '\(' Branch '\)'  |  back_ref
Dup    =  '*'  |  '\{' Count '\}'  |  '\{' Count ',\}'  |  '\{' Count ',' Count '\}'

(leading ^ and trailing $ in a sub expr may be an anchor or literal as well)

ERE grammar:
Regex  =  Branch  |  Regex '|' Branch
Branch =  Atom  |  Branch Atom
Atom   =  char  |  quoted_char  |  '.'  |  Bracket  |  Atom Dup  |  '(' Regex ')'  |  '^'  |  '$'
Dup    =  '*'  |  '+'  |  '?'  |  '{' Count '}'  |  '{' Count ',}'  |  '{' Count ',' Count '}'

(a*+?, ^*, $+, \X, {, (|a) are unspecified)
*/

static reg_errcode_t parse_atom(tre_parse_ctx_t *ctx, const char *s)
{
	int len, ere = ctx->cflags & REG_EXTENDED;
	const char *p;
	tre_ast_node_t *node;
	wchar_t wc;
	switch (*s) {
	case '[':
		return parse_bracket(ctx, s+1);
	case '\\':
		p = tre_expand_macro(s+1);
		if (p) {
			/* assume \X expansion is a single atom */
			reg_errcode_t err = parse_atom(ctx, p);
			ctx->s = s+2;
			return err;
		}
		/* extensions: \b, \B, \<, \>, \xHH \x{HHHH} */
		switch (*++s) {
		case 0:
			return REG_EESCAPE;
		case 'b':
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, ASSERTION, ASSERT_AT_WB, -1);
			break;
		case 'B':
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, ASSERTION, ASSERT_AT_WB_NEG, -1);
			break;
		case '<':
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, ASSERTION, ASSERT_AT_BOW, -1);
			break;
		case '>':
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, ASSERTION, ASSERT_AT_EOW, -1);
			break;
		case 'x':
			s++;
			int i, v = 0, c;
			len = 2;
			if (*s == '{') {
				len = 8;
				s++;
			}
			for (i=0; i<len && v<0x110000; i++) {
				c = hexval(s[i]);
				if (c < 0) break;
				v = 16*v + c;
			}
			s += i;
			if (len == 8) {
				if (*s != '}')
					return REG_EBRACE;
				s++;
			}
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, v, v, ctx->position);
			ctx->position++;
			s--;
			break;
		default:
			if (isdigit(*s)) {
				/* back reference */
				int val = *s - '0';
				node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, BACKREF, val, ctx->position);
				ctx->max_backref = MAX(val, ctx->max_backref);
			} else {
				/* extension: accept unknown escaped char
				   as a literal */
				node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, *s, *s, ctx->position);
			}
			ctx->position++;
		}
		s++;
		break;
	case '.':
		if (ctx->cflags & REG_NEWLINE) {
			tre_ast_node_t *tmp1, *tmp2;
			tmp1 = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, 0, '\n'-1, ctx->position++);
			tmp2 = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, '\n'+1, TRE_CHAR_MAX, ctx->position++);
			if (tmp1 && tmp2)
				node = tre_ast_new_union(ctx->mem, tmp1, tmp2);
			else
				node = 0;
		} else {
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, 0, TRE_CHAR_MAX, ctx->position++);
		}
		s++;
		break;
	case '^':
		/* '^' has a special meaning everywhere in EREs, and at beginning of BRE. */
		if (!ere && s != ctx->re)
			goto parse_literal;
		node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, ASSERTION, ASSERT_AT_BOL, -1);
		s++;
		break;
	case '$':
		/* '$' is special everywhere in EREs, and in the end of the string in BREs. */
		if (!ere && s[1])
			goto parse_literal;
		node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, ASSERTION, ASSERT_AT_EOL, -1);
		s++;
		break;
	case '*':
	case '|':
	case '{':
	case '+':
	case '?':
		if (!ere)
			goto parse_literal;
	case 0:
		node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, EMPTY, -1, -1);
		break;
	default:
parse_literal:
		len = mbtowc(&wc, s, -1);
		if (len < 0)
			return REG_BADPAT;
		if (ctx->cflags & REG_ICASE && (tre_isupper(wc) || tre_islower(wc))) {
			tre_ast_node_t *tmp1, *tmp2;
			/* multiple opposite case characters are not supported */
			tmp1 = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, tre_toupper(wc), tre_toupper(wc), ctx->position);
			tmp2 = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, tre_tolower(wc), tre_tolower(wc), ctx->position);
			if (tmp1 && tmp2)
				node = tre_ast_new_union(ctx->mem, tmp1, tmp2);
			else
				node = 0;
		} else {
			node = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, wc, wc, ctx->position);
		}
		ctx->position++;
		s += len;
		break;
	}
	if (!node)
		return REG_ESPACE;
	ctx->n = node;
	ctx->s = s;
	return REG_OK;
}

#define PUSHPTR(err, s, v) do { \
	if ((err = tre_stack_push_voidptr(s, v)) != REG_OK) \
		return err; \
} while(0)

#define PUSHINT(err, s, v) do { \
	if ((err = tre_stack_push_int(s, v)) != REG_OK) \
		return err; \
} while(0)

static reg_errcode_t tre_parse(tre_parse_ctx_t *ctx)
{
	tre_ast_node_t *nbranch=0, *nunion=0;
	int ere = ctx->cflags & REG_EXTENDED;
	const char *s = ctx->re;
	int subid = 0;
	int depth = 0;
	reg_errcode_t err;
	tre_stack_t *stack = ctx->stack;

	PUSHINT(err, stack, subid++);
	for (;;) {
		if ((!ere && *s == '\\' && s[1] == '(') ||
		    (ere && *s == '(')) {
			PUSHPTR(err, stack, nunion);
			PUSHPTR(err, stack, nbranch);
			PUSHINT(err, stack, subid++);
			s++;
			if (!ere)
				s++;
			depth++;
			nbranch = nunion = 0;
			continue;
		}
		if ((!ere && *s == '\\' && s[1] == ')') ||
		    (ere && *s == ')' && depth)) {
			ctx->n = tre_ast_new_literal(ctx->mem, EMPTY, -1, -1);
			if (!ctx->n)
				return REG_ESPACE;
		} else {
			err = parse_atom(ctx, s);
			if (err != REG_OK)
				return err;
			s = ctx->s;
		}

	parse_iter:
		/* extension: repetitions are accepted after an empty node
		   eg. (+), ^*, a$?, a|{2} */
		switch (*s) {
		case '+':
		case '?':
			if (!ere)
				break;
			/* fallthrough */
		case '*':;
			int min=0, max=-1;
			if (*s == '+')
				min = 1;
			if (*s == '?')
				max = 1;
			s++;
			ctx->n = tre_ast_new_iter(ctx->mem, ctx->n, min, max, 0);
			if (!ctx->n)
				return REG_ESPACE;
			/* extension: multiple consecutive *+?{,} is unspecified,
			   but (a+)+ has to be supported so accepting a++ makes
			   sense, note however that the RE_DUP_MAX limit can be
			   circumvented: (a{255}){255} uses a lot of memory.. */
			goto parse_iter;
		case '\\':
			if (ere || s[1] != '{')
				break;
			s++;
			goto parse_brace;
		case '{':
			if (!ere)
				break;
		parse_brace:
			err = parse_dup(ctx, s+1);
			if (err != REG_OK)
				return err;
			s = ctx->s;
			goto parse_iter;
		}

		nbranch = tre_ast_new_catenation(ctx->mem, nbranch, ctx->n);
		if ((ere && *s == '|') ||
		    (ere && *s == ')' && depth) ||
		    (!ere && *s == '\\' && s[1] == ')') ||
		    !*s) {
			/* extension: empty branch is unspecified (), (|a), (a|)
			   here they are not rejected but match on empty string */
			int c = *s;
			nunion = tre_ast_new_union(ctx->mem, nunion, nbranch);
			nbranch = 0;
			if (c != '|') {
				if (c == '\\') {
					if (!depth) return REG_EPAREN;
					s+=2;
				} else if (c == ')')
					s++;
				depth--;
				err = marksub(ctx, nunion, tre_stack_pop_int(stack));
				if (err != REG_OK)
					return err;
				if (!c && depth<0) {
					ctx->submatch_id = subid;
					return REG_OK;
				}
				if (!c || depth<0)
					return REG_EPAREN;
				nbranch = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
				nunion = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
				goto parse_iter;
			}
			s++;
		}
	}
}


/***********************************************************************
 from tre-compile.c
***********************************************************************/


/*
  TODO:
   - Fix tre_ast_to_tnfa() to recurse using a stack instead of recursive
     function calls.
*/

/*
  Algorithms to setup tags so that submatch addressing can be done.
*/


/* Inserts a catenation node to the root of the tree given in `node'.
   As the left child a new tag with number `tag_id' to `node' is added,
   and the right child is the old root. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_add_tag_left(tre_mem_t mem, tre_ast_node_t *node, int tag_id)
{
  tre_catenation_t *c;

  c = tre_mem_alloc(mem, sizeof(*c));
  if (c == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;
  c->left = tre_ast_new_literal(mem, TAG, tag_id, -1);
  if (c->left == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;
  c->right = tre_mem_alloc(mem, sizeof(tre_ast_node_t));
  if (c->right == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;

  c->right->obj = node->obj;
  c->right->type = node->type;
  c->right->nullable = -1;
  c->right->submatch_id = -1;
  c->right->firstpos = NULL;
  c->right->lastpos = NULL;
  c->right->num_tags = 0;
  node->obj = c;
  node->type = CATENATION;
  return REG_OK;
}

/* Inserts a catenation node to the root of the tree given in `node'.
   As the right child a new tag with number `tag_id' to `node' is added,
   and the left child is the old root. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_add_tag_right(tre_mem_t mem, tre_ast_node_t *node, int tag_id)
{
  tre_catenation_t *c;

  c = tre_mem_alloc(mem, sizeof(*c));
  if (c == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;
  c->right = tre_ast_new_literal(mem, TAG, tag_id, -1);
  if (c->right == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;
  c->left = tre_mem_alloc(mem, sizeof(tre_ast_node_t));
  if (c->left == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;

  c->left->obj = node->obj;
  c->left->type = node->type;
  c->left->nullable = -1;
  c->left->submatch_id = -1;
  c->left->firstpos = NULL;
  c->left->lastpos = NULL;
  c->left->num_tags = 0;
  node->obj = c;
  node->type = CATENATION;
  return REG_OK;
}

typedef enum {
  ADDTAGS_RECURSE,
  ADDTAGS_AFTER_ITERATION,
  ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_LEFT,
  ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_RIGHT,
  ADDTAGS_AFTER_CAT_LEFT,
  ADDTAGS_AFTER_CAT_RIGHT,
  ADDTAGS_SET_SUBMATCH_END
} tre_addtags_symbol_t;


typedef struct {
  int tag;
  int next_tag;
} tre_tag_states_t;


/* Go through `regset' and set submatch data for submatches that are
   using this tag. */
static void
tre_purge_regset(int *regset, tre_tnfa_t *tnfa, int tag)
{
  int i;

  for (i = 0; regset[i] >= 0; i++)
    {
      int id = regset[i] / 2;
      int start = !(regset[i] % 2);
      if (start)
	tnfa->submatch_data[id].so_tag = tag;
      else
	tnfa->submatch_data[id].eo_tag = tag;
    }
  regset[0] = -1;
}


/* Adds tags to appropriate locations in the parse tree in `tree', so that
   subexpressions marked for submatch addressing can be traced. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_add_tags(tre_mem_t mem, tre_stack_t *stack, tre_ast_node_t *tree,
	     tre_tnfa_t *tnfa)
{
  reg_errcode_t status = REG_OK;
  tre_addtags_symbol_t symbol;
  tre_ast_node_t *node = tree; /* Tree node we are currently looking at. */
  int bottom = tre_stack_num_objects(stack);
  /* True for first pass (counting number of needed tags) */
  int first_pass = (mem == NULL || tnfa == NULL);
  int *regset, *orig_regset;
  int num_tags = 0; /* Total number of tags. */
  int num_minimals = 0;	 /* Number of special minimal tags. */
  int tag = 0;	    /* The tag that is to be added next. */
  int next_tag = 1; /* Next tag to use after this one. */
  int *parents;	    /* Stack of submatches the current submatch is
		       contained in. */
  int minimal_tag = -1; /* Tag that marks the beginning of a minimal match. */
  tre_tag_states_t *saved_states;

  tre_tag_direction_t direction = TRE_TAG_MINIMIZE;
  if (!first_pass)
    {
      tnfa->end_tag = 0;
      tnfa->minimal_tags[0] = -1;
    }

  regset = xmalloc(sizeof(*regset) * ((tnfa->num_submatches + 1) * 2));
  if (regset == NULL)
    return REG_ESPACE;
  regset[0] = -1;
  orig_regset = regset;

  parents = xmalloc(sizeof(*parents) * (tnfa->num_submatches + 1));
  if (parents == NULL)
    {
      xfree(regset);
      return REG_ESPACE;
    }
  parents[0] = -1;

  saved_states = xmalloc(sizeof(*saved_states) * (tnfa->num_submatches + 1));
  if (saved_states == NULL)
    {
      xfree(regset);
      xfree(parents);
      return REG_ESPACE;
    }
  else
    {
      unsigned int i;
      for (i = 0; i <= tnfa->num_submatches; i++)
	saved_states[i].tag = -1;
    }

  STACK_PUSH(stack, voidptr, node);
  STACK_PUSH(stack, int, ADDTAGS_RECURSE);

  while (tre_stack_num_objects(stack) > bottom)
    {
      if (status != REG_OK)
	break;

      symbol = (tre_addtags_symbol_t)tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
      switch (symbol)
	{

	case ADDTAGS_SET_SUBMATCH_END:
	  {
	    int id = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
	    int i;

	    /* Add end of this submatch to regset. */
	    for (i = 0; regset[i] >= 0; i++);
	    regset[i] = id * 2 + 1;
	    regset[i + 1] = -1;

	    /* Pop this submatch from the parents stack. */
	    for (i = 0; parents[i] >= 0; i++);
	    parents[i - 1] = -1;
	    break;
	  }

	case ADDTAGS_RECURSE:
	  node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);

	  if (node->submatch_id >= 0)
	    {
	      int id = node->submatch_id;
	      int i;


	      /* Add start of this submatch to regset. */
	      for (i = 0; regset[i] >= 0; i++);
	      regset[i] = id * 2;
	      regset[i + 1] = -1;

	      if (!first_pass)
		{
		  for (i = 0; parents[i] >= 0; i++);
		  tnfa->submatch_data[id].parents = NULL;
		  if (i > 0)
		    {
		      int *p = xmalloc(sizeof(*p) * (i + 1));
		      if (p == NULL)
			{
			  status = REG_ESPACE;
			  break;
			}
		      assert(tnfa->submatch_data[id].parents == NULL);
		      tnfa->submatch_data[id].parents = p;
		      for (i = 0; parents[i] >= 0; i++)
			p[i] = parents[i];
		      p[i] = -1;
		    }
		}

	      /* Add end of this submatch to regset after processing this
		 node. */
	      STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, node->submatch_id);
	      STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_SET_SUBMATCH_END);
	    }

	  switch (node->type)
	    {
	    case LITERAL:
	      {
		tre_literal_t *lit = node->obj;

		if (!IS_SPECIAL(lit) || IS_BACKREF(lit))
		  {
		    int i;
		    if (regset[0] >= 0)
		      {
			/* Regset is not empty, so add a tag before the
			   literal or backref. */
			if (!first_pass)
			  {
			    status = tre_add_tag_left(mem, node, tag);
			    tnfa->tag_directions[tag] = direction;
			    if (minimal_tag >= 0)
			      {
				for (i = 0; tnfa->minimal_tags[i] >= 0; i++);
				tnfa->minimal_tags[i] = tag;
				tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 1] = minimal_tag;
				tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 2] = -1;
				minimal_tag = -1;
				num_minimals++;
			      }
			    tre_purge_regset(regset, tnfa, tag);
			  }
			else
			  {
			    node->num_tags = 1;
			  }

			regset[0] = -1;
			tag = next_tag;
			num_tags++;
			next_tag++;
		      }
		  }
		else
		  {
		    assert(!IS_TAG(lit));
		  }
		break;
	      }
	    case CATENATION:
	      {
		tre_catenation_t *cat = node->obj;
		tre_ast_node_t *left = cat->left;
		tre_ast_node_t *right = cat->right;
		int reserved_tag = -1;


		/* After processing right child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, node);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_AFTER_CAT_RIGHT);

		/* Process right child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_RECURSE);

		/* After processing left child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, next_tag + left->num_tags);
		if (left->num_tags > 0 && right->num_tags > 0)
		  {
		    /* Reserve the next tag to the right child. */
		    reserved_tag = next_tag;
		    next_tag++;
		  }
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, reserved_tag);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_AFTER_CAT_LEFT);

		/* Process left child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_RECURSE);

		}
	      break;
	    case ITERATION:
	      {
		tre_iteration_t *iter = node->obj;

		if (first_pass)
		  {
		    STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, regset[0] >= 0 || iter->minimal);
		  }
		else
		  {
		    STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, tag);
		    STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, iter->minimal);
		  }
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, node);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_AFTER_ITERATION);

		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, iter->arg);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_RECURSE);

		/* Regset is not empty, so add a tag here. */
		if (regset[0] >= 0 || iter->minimal)
		  {
		    if (!first_pass)
		      {
			int i;
			status = tre_add_tag_left(mem, node, tag);
			if (iter->minimal)
			  tnfa->tag_directions[tag] = TRE_TAG_MAXIMIZE;
			else
			  tnfa->tag_directions[tag] = direction;
			if (minimal_tag >= 0)
			  {
			    for (i = 0; tnfa->minimal_tags[i] >= 0; i++);
			    tnfa->minimal_tags[i] = tag;
			    tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 1] = minimal_tag;
			    tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 2] = -1;
			    minimal_tag = -1;
			    num_minimals++;
			  }
			tre_purge_regset(regset, tnfa, tag);
		      }

		    regset[0] = -1;
		    tag = next_tag;
		    num_tags++;
		    next_tag++;
		  }
		direction = TRE_TAG_MINIMIZE;
	      }
	      break;
	    case UNION:
	      {
		tre_union_t *uni = node->obj;
		tre_ast_node_t *left = uni->left;
		tre_ast_node_t *right = uni->right;
		int left_tag;
		int right_tag;

		if (regset[0] >= 0)
		  {
		    left_tag = next_tag;
		    right_tag = next_tag + 1;
		  }
		else
		  {
		    left_tag = tag;
		    right_tag = next_tag;
		  }

		/* After processing right child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, right_tag);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, left_tag);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, regset);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, regset[0] >= 0);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, node);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_RIGHT);

		/* Process right child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_RECURSE);

		/* After processing left child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_LEFT);

		/* Process left child. */
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, ADDTAGS_RECURSE);

		/* Regset is not empty, so add a tag here. */
		if (regset[0] >= 0)
		  {
		    if (!first_pass)
		      {
			int i;
			status = tre_add_tag_left(mem, node, tag);
			tnfa->tag_directions[tag] = direction;
			if (minimal_tag >= 0)
			  {
			    for (i = 0; tnfa->minimal_tags[i] >= 0; i++);
			    tnfa->minimal_tags[i] = tag;
			    tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 1] = minimal_tag;
			    tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 2] = -1;
			    minimal_tag = -1;
			    num_minimals++;
			  }
			tre_purge_regset(regset, tnfa, tag);
		      }

		    regset[0] = -1;
		    tag = next_tag;
		    num_tags++;
		    next_tag++;
		  }

		if (node->num_submatches > 0)
		  {
		    /* The next two tags are reserved for markers. */
		    next_tag++;
		    tag = next_tag;
		    next_tag++;
		  }

		break;
	      }
	    }

	  if (node->submatch_id >= 0)
	    {
	      int i;
	      /* Push this submatch on the parents stack. */
	      for (i = 0; parents[i] >= 0; i++);
	      parents[i] = node->submatch_id;
	      parents[i + 1] = -1;
	    }

	  break; /* end case: ADDTAGS_RECURSE */

	case ADDTAGS_AFTER_ITERATION:
	  {
	    int minimal = 0;
	    int enter_tag;
	    node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	    if (first_pass)
	      {
		node->num_tags = ((tre_iteration_t *)node->obj)->arg->num_tags
		  + tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
		minimal_tag = -1;
	      }
	    else
	      {
		minimal = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
		enter_tag = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
		if (minimal)
		  minimal_tag = enter_tag;
	      }

	    if (!first_pass)
	      {
		if (minimal)
		  direction = TRE_TAG_MINIMIZE;
		else
		  direction = TRE_TAG_MAXIMIZE;
	      }
	    break;
	  }

	case ADDTAGS_AFTER_CAT_LEFT:
	  {
	    int new_tag = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
	    next_tag = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
	    if (new_tag >= 0)
	      {
		tag = new_tag;
	      }
	    break;
	  }

	case ADDTAGS_AFTER_CAT_RIGHT:
	  node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	  if (first_pass)
	    node->num_tags = ((tre_catenation_t *)node->obj)->left->num_tags
	      + ((tre_catenation_t *)node->obj)->right->num_tags;
	  break;

	case ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_LEFT:
	  /* Lift the bottom of the `regset' array so that when processing
	     the right operand the items currently in the array are
	     invisible.	 The original bottom was saved at ADDTAGS_UNION and
	     will be restored at ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_RIGHT below. */
	  while (*regset >= 0)
	    regset++;
	  break;

	case ADDTAGS_AFTER_UNION_RIGHT:
	  {
	    int added_tags, tag_left, tag_right;
	    tre_ast_node_t *left = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	    tre_ast_node_t *right = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	    node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	    added_tags = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
	    if (first_pass)
	      {
		node->num_tags = ((tre_union_t *)node->obj)->left->num_tags
		  + ((tre_union_t *)node->obj)->right->num_tags + added_tags
		  + ((node->num_submatches > 0) ? 2 : 0);
	      }
	    regset = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	    tag_left = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
	    tag_right = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);

	    /* Add tags after both children, the left child gets a smaller
	       tag than the right child.  This guarantees that we prefer
	       the left child over the right child. */
	    /* XXX - This is not always necessary (if the children have
	       tags which must be seen for every match of that child). */
	    /* XXX - Check if this is the only place where tre_add_tag_right
	       is used.	 If so, use tre_add_tag_left (putting the tag before
	       the child as opposed after the child) and throw away
	       tre_add_tag_right. */
	    if (node->num_submatches > 0)
	      {
		if (!first_pass)
		  {
		    status = tre_add_tag_right(mem, left, tag_left);
		    tnfa->tag_directions[tag_left] = TRE_TAG_MAXIMIZE;
		    status = tre_add_tag_right(mem, right, tag_right);
		    tnfa->tag_directions[tag_right] = TRE_TAG_MAXIMIZE;
		  }
		num_tags += 2;
	      }
	    direction = TRE_TAG_MAXIMIZE;
	    break;
	  }

	default:
	  assert(0);
	  break;

	} /* end switch(symbol) */
    } /* end while(tre_stack_num_objects(stack) > bottom) */

  if (!first_pass)
    tre_purge_regset(regset, tnfa, tag);

  if (!first_pass && minimal_tag >= 0)
    {
      int i;
      for (i = 0; tnfa->minimal_tags[i] >= 0; i++);
      tnfa->minimal_tags[i] = tag;
      tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 1] = minimal_tag;
      tnfa->minimal_tags[i + 2] = -1;
      minimal_tag = -1;
      num_minimals++;
    }

  assert(tree->num_tags == num_tags);
  tnfa->end_tag = num_tags;
  tnfa->num_tags = num_tags;
  tnfa->num_minimals = num_minimals;
  xfree(orig_regset);
  xfree(parents);
  xfree(saved_states);
  return status;
}



/*
  AST to TNFA compilation routines.
*/

typedef enum {
  COPY_RECURSE,
  COPY_SET_RESULT_PTR
} tre_copyast_symbol_t;

/* Flags for tre_copy_ast(). */
#define COPY_REMOVE_TAGS	 1
#define COPY_MAXIMIZE_FIRST_TAG	 2

static reg_errcode_t
tre_copy_ast(tre_mem_t mem, tre_stack_t *stack, tre_ast_node_t *ast,
	     int flags, int *pos_add, tre_tag_direction_t *tag_directions,
	     tre_ast_node_t **copy, int *max_pos)
{
  reg_errcode_t status = REG_OK;
  int bottom = tre_stack_num_objects(stack);
  int num_copied = 0;
  int first_tag = 1;
  tre_ast_node_t **result = copy;
  tre_copyast_symbol_t symbol;

  STACK_PUSH(stack, voidptr, ast);
  STACK_PUSH(stack, int, COPY_RECURSE);

  while (status == REG_OK && tre_stack_num_objects(stack) > bottom)
    {
      tre_ast_node_t *node;
      if (status != REG_OK)
	break;

      symbol = (tre_copyast_symbol_t)tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
      switch (symbol)
	{
	case COPY_SET_RESULT_PTR:
	  result = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	  break;
	case COPY_RECURSE:
	  node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
	  switch (node->type)
	    {
	    case LITERAL:
	      {
		tre_literal_t *lit = node->obj;
		int pos = lit->position;
		int min = lit->code_min;
		int max = lit->code_max;
		if (!IS_SPECIAL(lit) || IS_BACKREF(lit))
		  {
		    /* XXX - e.g. [ab] has only one position but two
		       nodes, so we are creating holes in the state space
		       here.  Not fatal, just wastes memory. */
		    pos += *pos_add;
		    num_copied++;
		  }
		else if (IS_TAG(lit) && (flags & COPY_REMOVE_TAGS))
		  {
		    /* Change this tag to empty. */
		    min = EMPTY;
		    max = pos = -1;
		  }
		else if (IS_TAG(lit) && (flags & COPY_MAXIMIZE_FIRST_TAG)
			 && first_tag)
		  {
		    /* Maximize the first tag. */
		    tag_directions[max] = TRE_TAG_MAXIMIZE;
		    first_tag = 0;
		  }
		*result = tre_ast_new_literal(mem, min, max, pos);
		if (*result == NULL)
		  status = REG_ESPACE;

		if (pos > *max_pos)
		  *max_pos = pos;
		break;
	      }
	    case UNION:
	      {
		tre_union_t *uni = node->obj;
		tre_union_t *tmp;
		*result = tre_ast_new_union(mem, uni->left, uni->right);
		if (*result == NULL)
		  {
		    status = REG_ESPACE;
		    break;
		  }
		tmp = (*result)->obj;
		result = &tmp->left;
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, uni->right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_RECURSE);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, &tmp->right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_SET_RESULT_PTR);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, uni->left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_RECURSE);
		break;
	      }
	    case CATENATION:
	      {
		tre_catenation_t *cat = node->obj;
		tre_catenation_t *tmp;
		*result = tre_ast_new_catenation(mem, cat->left, cat->right);
		if (*result == NULL)
		  {
		    status = REG_ESPACE;
		    break;
		  }
		tmp = (*result)->obj;
		tmp->left = NULL;
		tmp->right = NULL;
		result = &tmp->left;

		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, cat->right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_RECURSE);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, &tmp->right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_SET_RESULT_PTR);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, cat->left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_RECURSE);
		break;
	      }
	    case ITERATION:
	      {
		tre_iteration_t *iter = node->obj;
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, iter->arg);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, COPY_RECURSE);
		*result = tre_ast_new_iter(mem, iter->arg, iter->min,
					   iter->max, iter->minimal);
		if (*result == NULL)
		  {
		    status = REG_ESPACE;
		    break;
		  }
		iter = (*result)->obj;
		result = &iter->arg;
		break;
	      }
	    default:
	      assert(0);
	      break;
	    }
	  break;
	}
    }
  *pos_add += num_copied;
  return status;
}

typedef enum {
  EXPAND_RECURSE,
  EXPAND_AFTER_ITER
} tre_expand_ast_symbol_t;

/* Expands each iteration node that has a finite nonzero minimum or maximum
   iteration count to a catenated sequence of copies of the node. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_expand_ast(tre_mem_t mem, tre_stack_t *stack, tre_ast_node_t *ast,
	       int *position, tre_tag_direction_t *tag_directions)
{
  reg_errcode_t status = REG_OK;
  int bottom = tre_stack_num_objects(stack);
  int pos_add = 0;
  int pos_add_total = 0;
  int max_pos = 0;
  int iter_depth = 0;

  STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, ast);
  STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, EXPAND_RECURSE);
  while (status == REG_OK && tre_stack_num_objects(stack) > bottom)
    {
      tre_ast_node_t *node;
      tre_expand_ast_symbol_t symbol;

      if (status != REG_OK)
	break;

      symbol = (tre_expand_ast_symbol_t)tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
      node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
      switch (symbol)
	{
	case EXPAND_RECURSE:
	  switch (node->type)
	    {
	    case LITERAL:
	      {
		tre_literal_t *lit= node->obj;
		if (!IS_SPECIAL(lit) || IS_BACKREF(lit))
		  {
		    lit->position += pos_add;
		    if (lit->position > max_pos)
		      max_pos = lit->position;
		  }
		break;
	      }
	    case UNION:
	      {
		tre_union_t *uni = node->obj;
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, uni->right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, EXPAND_RECURSE);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, uni->left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, EXPAND_RECURSE);
		break;
	      }
	    case CATENATION:
	      {
		tre_catenation_t *cat = node->obj;
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, cat->right);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, EXPAND_RECURSE);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, cat->left);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, EXPAND_RECURSE);
		break;
	      }
	    case ITERATION:
	      {
		tre_iteration_t *iter = node->obj;
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, pos_add);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, node);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, EXPAND_AFTER_ITER);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, iter->arg);
		STACK_PUSHX(stack, int, EXPAND_RECURSE);
		/* If we are going to expand this node at EXPAND_AFTER_ITER
		   then don't increase the `pos' fields of the nodes now, it
		   will get done when expanding. */
		if (iter->min > 1 || iter->max > 1)
		  pos_add = 0;
		iter_depth++;
		break;
	      }
	    default:
	      assert(0);
	      break;
	    }
	  break;
	case EXPAND_AFTER_ITER:
	  {
	    tre_iteration_t *iter = node->obj;
	    int pos_add_last;
	    pos_add = tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
	    pos_add_last = pos_add;
	    if (iter->min > 1 || iter->max > 1)
	      {
		tre_ast_node_t *seq1 = NULL, *seq2 = NULL;
		int j;
		int pos_add_save = pos_add;

		/* Create a catenated sequence of copies of the node. */
		for (j = 0; j < iter->min; j++)
		  {
		    tre_ast_node_t *copy;
		    /* Remove tags from all but the last copy. */
		    int flags = ((j + 1 < iter->min)
				 ? COPY_REMOVE_TAGS
				 : COPY_MAXIMIZE_FIRST_TAG);
		    pos_add_save = pos_add;
		    status = tre_copy_ast(mem, stack, iter->arg, flags,
					  &pos_add, tag_directions, &copy,
					  &max_pos);
		    if (status != REG_OK)
		      return status;
		    if (seq1 != NULL)
		      seq1 = tre_ast_new_catenation(mem, seq1, copy);
		    else
		      seq1 = copy;
		    if (seq1 == NULL)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		  }

		if (iter->max == -1)
		  {
		    /* No upper limit. */
		    pos_add_save = pos_add;
		    status = tre_copy_ast(mem, stack, iter->arg, 0,
					  &pos_add, NULL, &seq2, &max_pos);
		    if (status != REG_OK)
		      return status;
		    seq2 = tre_ast_new_iter(mem, seq2, 0, -1, 0);
		    if (seq2 == NULL)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		  }
		else
		  {
		    for (j = iter->min; j < iter->max; j++)
		      {
			tre_ast_node_t *tmp, *copy;
			pos_add_save = pos_add;
			status = tre_copy_ast(mem, stack, iter->arg, 0,
					      &pos_add, NULL, &copy, &max_pos);
			if (status != REG_OK)
			  return status;
			if (seq2 != NULL)
			  seq2 = tre_ast_new_catenation(mem, copy, seq2);
			else
			  seq2 = copy;
			if (seq2 == NULL)
			  return REG_ESPACE;
			tmp = tre_ast_new_literal(mem, EMPTY, -1, -1);
			if (tmp == NULL)
			  return REG_ESPACE;
			seq2 = tre_ast_new_union(mem, tmp, seq2);
			if (seq2 == NULL)
			  return REG_ESPACE;
		      }
		  }

		pos_add = pos_add_save;
		if (seq1 == NULL)
		  seq1 = seq2;
		else if (seq2 != NULL)
		  seq1 = tre_ast_new_catenation(mem, seq1, seq2);
		if (seq1 == NULL)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
		node->obj = seq1->obj;
		node->type = seq1->type;
	      }

	    iter_depth--;
	    pos_add_total += pos_add - pos_add_last;
	    if (iter_depth == 0)
	      pos_add = pos_add_total;

	    break;
	  }
	default:
	  assert(0);
	  break;
	}
    }

  *position += pos_add_total;

  /* `max_pos' should never be larger than `*position' if the above
     code works, but just an extra safeguard let's make sure
     `*position' is set large enough so enough memory will be
     allocated for the transition table. */
  if (max_pos > *position)
    *position = max_pos;

  return status;
}

static tre_pos_and_tags_t *
tre_set_empty(tre_mem_t mem)
{
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *new_set;

  new_set = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof(*new_set));
  if (new_set == NULL)
    return NULL;

  new_set[0].position = -1;
  new_set[0].code_min = -1;
  new_set[0].code_max = -1;

  return new_set;
}

static tre_pos_and_tags_t *
tre_set_one(tre_mem_t mem, int position, int code_min, int code_max,
	    tre_ctype_t class, tre_ctype_t *neg_classes, int backref)
{
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *new_set;

  new_set = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof(*new_set) * 2);
  if (new_set == NULL)
    return NULL;

  new_set[0].position = position;
  new_set[0].code_min = code_min;
  new_set[0].code_max = code_max;
  new_set[0].class = class;
  new_set[0].neg_classes = neg_classes;
  new_set[0].backref = backref;
  new_set[1].position = -1;
  new_set[1].code_min = -1;
  new_set[1].code_max = -1;

  return new_set;
}

static tre_pos_and_tags_t *
tre_set_union(tre_mem_t mem, tre_pos_and_tags_t *set1, tre_pos_and_tags_t *set2,
	      int *tags, int assertions)
{
  int s1, s2, i, j;
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *new_set;
  int *new_tags;
  int num_tags;

  for (num_tags = 0; tags != NULL && tags[num_tags] >= 0; num_tags++);
  for (s1 = 0; set1[s1].position >= 0; s1++);
  for (s2 = 0; set2[s2].position >= 0; s2++);
  new_set = tre_mem_calloc(mem, sizeof(*new_set) * (s1 + s2 + 1));
  if (!new_set )
    return NULL;

  for (s1 = 0; set1[s1].position >= 0; s1++)
    {
      new_set[s1].position = set1[s1].position;
      new_set[s1].code_min = set1[s1].code_min;
      new_set[s1].code_max = set1[s1].code_max;
      new_set[s1].assertions = set1[s1].assertions | assertions;
      new_set[s1].class = set1[s1].class;
      new_set[s1].neg_classes = set1[s1].neg_classes;
      new_set[s1].backref = set1[s1].backref;
      if (set1[s1].tags == NULL && tags == NULL)
	new_set[s1].tags = NULL;
      else
	{
	  for (i = 0; set1[s1].tags != NULL && set1[s1].tags[i] >= 0; i++);
	  new_tags = tre_mem_alloc(mem, (sizeof(*new_tags)
					 * (i + num_tags + 1)));
	  if (new_tags == NULL)
	    return NULL;
	  for (j = 0; j < i; j++)
	    new_tags[j] = set1[s1].tags[j];
	  for (i = 0; i < num_tags; i++)
	    new_tags[j + i] = tags[i];
	  new_tags[j + i] = -1;
	  new_set[s1].tags = new_tags;
	}
    }

  for (s2 = 0; set2[s2].position >= 0; s2++)
    {
      new_set[s1 + s2].position = set2[s2].position;
      new_set[s1 + s2].code_min = set2[s2].code_min;
      new_set[s1 + s2].code_max = set2[s2].code_max;
      /* XXX - why not | assertions here as well? */
      new_set[s1 + s2].assertions = set2[s2].assertions;
      new_set[s1 + s2].class = set2[s2].class;
      new_set[s1 + s2].neg_classes = set2[s2].neg_classes;
      new_set[s1 + s2].backref = set2[s2].backref;
      if (set2[s2].tags == NULL)
	new_set[s1 + s2].tags = NULL;
      else
	{
	  for (i = 0; set2[s2].tags[i] >= 0; i++);
	  new_tags = tre_mem_alloc(mem, sizeof(*new_tags) * (i + 1));
	  if (new_tags == NULL)
	    return NULL;
	  for (j = 0; j < i; j++)
	    new_tags[j] = set2[s2].tags[j];
	  new_tags[j] = -1;
	  new_set[s1 + s2].tags = new_tags;
	}
    }
  new_set[s1 + s2].position = -1;
  return new_set;
}

/* Finds the empty path through `node' which is the one that should be
   taken according to POSIX.2 rules, and adds the tags on that path to
   `tags'.   `tags' may be NULL.  If `num_tags_seen' is not NULL, it is
   set to the number of tags seen on the path. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_match_empty(tre_stack_t *stack, tre_ast_node_t *node, int *tags,
		int *assertions, int *num_tags_seen)
{
  tre_literal_t *lit;
  tre_union_t *uni;
  tre_catenation_t *cat;
  tre_iteration_t *iter;
  int i;
  int bottom = tre_stack_num_objects(stack);
  reg_errcode_t status = REG_OK;
  if (num_tags_seen)
    *num_tags_seen = 0;

  status = tre_stack_push_voidptr(stack, node);

  /* Walk through the tree recursively. */
  while (status == REG_OK && tre_stack_num_objects(stack) > bottom)
    {
      node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);

      switch (node->type)
	{
	case LITERAL:
	  lit = (tre_literal_t *)node->obj;
	  switch (lit->code_min)
	    {
	    case TAG:
	      if (lit->code_max >= 0)
		{
		  if (tags != NULL)
		    {
		      /* Add the tag to `tags'. */
		      for (i = 0; tags[i] >= 0; i++)
			if (tags[i] == lit->code_max)
			  break;
		      if (tags[i] < 0)
			{
			  tags[i] = lit->code_max;
			  tags[i + 1] = -1;
			}
		    }
		  if (num_tags_seen)
		    (*num_tags_seen)++;
		}
	      break;
	    case ASSERTION:
	      assert(lit->code_max >= 1
		     || lit->code_max <= ASSERT_LAST);
	      if (assertions != NULL)
		*assertions |= lit->code_max;
	      break;
	    case EMPTY:
	      break;
	    default:
	      assert(0);
	      break;
	    }
	  break;

	case UNION:
	  /* Subexpressions starting earlier take priority over ones
	     starting later, so we prefer the left subexpression over the
	     right subexpression. */
	  uni = (tre_union_t *)node->obj;
	  if (uni->left->nullable)
	    STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, uni->left)
	  else if (uni->right->nullable)
	    STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, uni->right)
	  else
	    assert(0);
	  break;

	case CATENATION:
	  /* The path must go through both children. */
	  cat = (tre_catenation_t *)node->obj;
	  assert(cat->left->nullable);
	  assert(cat->right->nullable);
	  STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, cat->left);
	  STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, cat->right);
	  break;

	case ITERATION:
	  /* A match with an empty string is preferred over no match at
	     all, so we go through the argument if possible. */
	  iter = (tre_iteration_t *)node->obj;
	  if (iter->arg->nullable)
	    STACK_PUSHX(stack, voidptr, iter->arg);
	  break;

	default:
	  assert(0);
	  break;
	}
    }

  return status;
}


typedef enum {
  NFL_RECURSE,
  NFL_POST_UNION,
  NFL_POST_CATENATION,
  NFL_POST_ITERATION
} tre_nfl_stack_symbol_t;


/* Computes and fills in the fields `nullable', `firstpos', and `lastpos' for
   the nodes of the AST `tree'. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_compute_nfl(tre_mem_t mem, tre_stack_t *stack, tre_ast_node_t *tree)
{
  int bottom = tre_stack_num_objects(stack);

  STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, tree);
  STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_RECURSE);

  while (tre_stack_num_objects(stack) > bottom)
    {
      tre_nfl_stack_symbol_t symbol;
      tre_ast_node_t *node;

      symbol = (tre_nfl_stack_symbol_t)tre_stack_pop_int(stack);
      node = tre_stack_pop_voidptr(stack);
      switch (symbol)
	{
	case NFL_RECURSE:
	  switch (node->type)
	    {
	    case LITERAL:
	      {
		tre_literal_t *lit = (tre_literal_t *)node->obj;
		if (IS_BACKREF(lit))
		  {
		    /* Back references: nullable = false, firstpos = {i},
		       lastpos = {i}. */
		    node->nullable = 0;
		    node->firstpos = tre_set_one(mem, lit->position, 0,
					     TRE_CHAR_MAX, 0, NULL, -1);
		    if (!node->firstpos)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		    node->lastpos = tre_set_one(mem, lit->position, 0,
						TRE_CHAR_MAX, 0, NULL,
						(int)lit->code_max);
		    if (!node->lastpos)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		  }
		else if (lit->code_min < 0)
		  {
		    /* Tags, empty strings, params, and zero width assertions:
		       nullable = true, firstpos = {}, and lastpos = {}. */
		    node->nullable = 1;
		    node->firstpos = tre_set_empty(mem);
		    if (!node->firstpos)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		    node->lastpos = tre_set_empty(mem);
		    if (!node->lastpos)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		  }
		else
		  {
		    /* Literal at position i: nullable = false, firstpos = {i},
		       lastpos = {i}. */
		    node->nullable = 0;
		    node->firstpos =
		      tre_set_one(mem, lit->position, (int)lit->code_min,
				  (int)lit->code_max, 0, NULL, -1);
		    if (!node->firstpos)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		    node->lastpos = tre_set_one(mem, lit->position,
						(int)lit->code_min,
						(int)lit->code_max,
						lit->class, lit->neg_classes,
						-1);
		    if (!node->lastpos)
		      return REG_ESPACE;
		  }
		break;
	      }

	    case UNION:
	      /* Compute the attributes for the two subtrees, and after that
		 for this node. */
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, node);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_POST_UNION);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, ((tre_union_t *)node->obj)->right);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_RECURSE);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, ((tre_union_t *)node->obj)->left);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_RECURSE);
	      break;

	    case CATENATION:
	      /* Compute the attributes for the two subtrees, and after that
		 for this node. */
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, node);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_POST_CATENATION);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, ((tre_catenation_t *)node->obj)->right);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_RECURSE);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, ((tre_catenation_t *)node->obj)->left);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_RECURSE);
	      break;

	    case ITERATION:
	      /* Compute the attributes for the subtree, and after that for
		 this node. */
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, node);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_POST_ITERATION);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, voidptr, ((tre_iteration_t *)node->obj)->arg);
	      STACK_PUSHR(stack, int, NFL_RECURSE);
	      break;
	    }
	  break; /* end case: NFL_RECURSE */

	case NFL_POST_UNION:
	  {
	    tre_union_t *uni = (tre_union_t *)node->obj;
	    node->nullable = uni->left->nullable || uni->right->nullable;
	    node->firstpos = tre_set_union(mem, uni->left->firstpos,
					   uni->right->firstpos, NULL, 0);
	    if (!node->firstpos)
	      return REG_ESPACE;
	    node->lastpos = tre_set_union(mem, uni->left->lastpos,
					  uni->right->lastpos, NULL, 0);
	    if (!node->lastpos)
	      return REG_ESPACE;
	    break;
	  }

	case NFL_POST_ITERATION:
	  {
	    tre_iteration_t *iter = (tre_iteration_t *)node->obj;

	    if (iter->min == 0 || iter->arg->nullable)
	      node->nullable = 1;
	    else
	      node->nullable = 0;
	    node->firstpos = iter->arg->firstpos;
	    node->lastpos = iter->arg->lastpos;
	    break;
	  }

	case NFL_POST_CATENATION:
	  {
	    int num_tags, *tags, assertions;
	    reg_errcode_t status;
	    tre_catenation_t *cat = node->obj;
	    node->nullable = cat->left->nullable && cat->right->nullable;

	    /* Compute firstpos. */
	    if (cat->left->nullable)
	      {
		/* The left side matches the empty string.  Make a first pass
		   with tre_match_empty() to get the number of tags and
		   parameters. */
		status = tre_match_empty(stack, cat->left,
					 NULL, NULL, &num_tags);
		if (status != REG_OK)
		  return status;
		/* Allocate arrays for the tags and parameters. */
		tags = xmalloc(sizeof(*tags) * (num_tags + 1));
		if (!tags)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
		tags[0] = -1;
		assertions = 0;
		/* Second pass with tre_mach_empty() to get the list of
		   tags and parameters. */
		status = tre_match_empty(stack, cat->left, tags,
					 &assertions, NULL);
		if (status != REG_OK)
		  {
		    xfree(tags);
		    return status;
		  }
		node->firstpos =
		  tre_set_union(mem, cat->right->firstpos, cat->left->firstpos,
				tags, assertions);
		xfree(tags);
		if (!node->firstpos)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
	      }
	    else
	      {
		node->firstpos = cat->left->firstpos;
	      }

	    /* Compute lastpos. */
	    if (cat->right->nullable)
	      {
		/* The right side matches the empty string.  Make a first pass
		   with tre_match_empty() to get the number of tags and
		   parameters. */
		status = tre_match_empty(stack, cat->right,
					 NULL, NULL, &num_tags);
		if (status != REG_OK)
		  return status;
		/* Allocate arrays for the tags and parameters. */
		tags = xmalloc(sizeof(int) * (num_tags + 1));
		if (!tags)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
		tags[0] = -1;
		assertions = 0;
		/* Second pass with tre_mach_empty() to get the list of
		   tags and parameters. */
		status = tre_match_empty(stack, cat->right, tags,
					 &assertions, NULL);
		if (status != REG_OK)
		  {
		    xfree(tags);
		    return status;
		  }
		node->lastpos =
		  tre_set_union(mem, cat->left->lastpos, cat->right->lastpos,
				tags, assertions);
		xfree(tags);
		if (!node->lastpos)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
	      }
	    else
	      {
		node->lastpos = cat->right->lastpos;
	      }
	    break;
	  }

	default:
	  assert(0);
	  break;
	}
    }

  return REG_OK;
}


/* Adds a transition from each position in `p1' to each position in `p2'. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_make_trans(tre_pos_and_tags_t *p1, tre_pos_and_tags_t *p2,
	       tre_tnfa_transition_t *transitions,
	       int *counts, int *offs)
{
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *orig_p2 = p2;
  tre_tnfa_transition_t *trans;
  int i, j, k, l, dup, prev_p2_pos;

  if (transitions != NULL)
    while (p1->position >= 0)
      {
	p2 = orig_p2;
	prev_p2_pos = -1;
	while (p2->position >= 0)
	  {
	    /* Optimization: if this position was already handled, skip it. */
	    if (p2->position == prev_p2_pos)
	      {
		p2++;
		continue;
	      }
	    prev_p2_pos = p2->position;
	    /* Set `trans' to point to the next unused transition from
	       position `p1->position'. */
	    trans = transitions + offs[p1->position];
	    while (trans->state != NULL)
	      {
#if 0
		/* If we find a previous transition from `p1->position' to
		   `p2->position', it is overwritten.  This can happen only
		   if there are nested loops in the regexp, like in "((a)*)*".
		   In POSIX.2 repetition using the outer loop is always
		   preferred over using the inner loop.	 Therefore the
		   transition for the inner loop is useless and can be thrown
		   away. */
		/* XXX - The same position is used for all nodes in a bracket
		   expression, so this optimization cannot be used (it will
		   break bracket expressions) unless I figure out a way to
		   detect it here. */
		if (trans->state_id == p2->position)
		  {
		    break;
		  }
#endif
		trans++;
	      }

	    if (trans->state == NULL)
	      (trans + 1)->state = NULL;
	    /* Use the character ranges, assertions, etc. from `p1' for
	       the transition from `p1' to `p2'. */
	    trans->code_min = p1->code_min;
	    trans->code_max = p1->code_max;
	    trans->state = transitions + offs[p2->position];
	    trans->state_id = p2->position;
	    trans->assertions = p1->assertions | p2->assertions
	      | (p1->class ? ASSERT_CHAR_CLASS : 0)
	      | (p1->neg_classes != NULL ? ASSERT_CHAR_CLASS_NEG : 0);
	    if (p1->backref >= 0)
	      {
		assert((trans->assertions & ASSERT_CHAR_CLASS) == 0);
		assert(p2->backref < 0);
		trans->u.backref = p1->backref;
		trans->assertions |= ASSERT_BACKREF;
	      }
	    else
	      trans->u.class = p1->class;
	    if (p1->neg_classes != NULL)
	      {
		for (i = 0; p1->neg_classes[i] != (tre_ctype_t)0; i++);
		trans->neg_classes =
		  xmalloc(sizeof(*trans->neg_classes) * (i + 1));
		if (trans->neg_classes == NULL)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
		for (i = 0; p1->neg_classes[i] != (tre_ctype_t)0; i++)
		  trans->neg_classes[i] = p1->neg_classes[i];
		trans->neg_classes[i] = (tre_ctype_t)0;
	      }
	    else
	      trans->neg_classes = NULL;

	    /* Find out how many tags this transition has. */
	    i = 0;
	    if (p1->tags != NULL)
	      while(p1->tags[i] >= 0)
		i++;
	    j = 0;
	    if (p2->tags != NULL)
	      while(p2->tags[j] >= 0)
		j++;

	    /* If we are overwriting a transition, free the old tag array. */
	    if (trans->tags != NULL)
	      xfree(trans->tags);
	    trans->tags = NULL;

	    /* If there were any tags, allocate an array and fill it. */
	    if (i + j > 0)
	      {
		trans->tags = xmalloc(sizeof(*trans->tags) * (i + j + 1));
		if (!trans->tags)
		  return REG_ESPACE;
		i = 0;
		if (p1->tags != NULL)
		  while(p1->tags[i] >= 0)
		    {
		      trans->tags[i] = p1->tags[i];
		      i++;
		    }
		l = i;
		j = 0;
		if (p2->tags != NULL)
		  while (p2->tags[j] >= 0)
		    {
		      /* Don't add duplicates. */
		      dup = 0;
		      for (k = 0; k < i; k++)
			if (trans->tags[k] == p2->tags[j])
			  {
			    dup = 1;
			    break;
			  }
		      if (!dup)
			trans->tags[l++] = p2->tags[j];
		      j++;
		    }
		trans->tags[l] = -1;
	      }

	    p2++;
	  }
	p1++;
      }
  else
    /* Compute a maximum limit for the number of transitions leaving
       from each state. */
    while (p1->position >= 0)
      {
	p2 = orig_p2;
	while (p2->position >= 0)
	  {
	    counts[p1->position]++;
	    p2++;
	  }
	p1++;
      }
  return REG_OK;
}

/* Converts the syntax tree to a TNFA.	All the transitions in the TNFA are
   labelled with one character range (there are no transitions on empty
   strings).  The TNFA takes O(n^2) space in the worst case, `n' is size of
   the regexp. */
static reg_errcode_t
tre_ast_to_tnfa(tre_ast_node_t *node, tre_tnfa_transition_t *transitions,
		int *counts, int *offs)
{
  tre_union_t *uni;
  tre_catenation_t *cat;
  tre_iteration_t *iter;
  reg_errcode_t errcode = REG_OK;

  /* XXX - recurse using a stack!. */
  switch (node->type)
    {
    case LITERAL:
      break;
    case UNION:
      uni = (tre_union_t *)node->obj;
      errcode = tre_ast_to_tnfa(uni->left, transitions, counts, offs);
      if (errcode != REG_OK)
	return errcode;
      errcode = tre_ast_to_tnfa(uni->right, transitions, counts, offs);
      break;

    case CATENATION:
      cat = (tre_catenation_t *)node->obj;
      /* Add a transition from each position in cat->left->lastpos
	 to each position in cat->right->firstpos. */
      errcode = tre_make_trans(cat->left->lastpos, cat->right->firstpos,
			       transitions, counts, offs);
      if (errcode != REG_OK)
	return errcode;
      errcode = tre_ast_to_tnfa(cat->left, transitions, counts, offs);
      if (errcode != REG_OK)
	return errcode;
      errcode = tre_ast_to_tnfa(cat->right, transitions, counts, offs);
      break;

    case ITERATION:
      iter = (tre_iteration_t *)node->obj;
      assert(iter->max == -1 || iter->max == 1);

      if (iter->max == -1)
	{
	  assert(iter->min == 0 || iter->min == 1);
	  /* Add a transition from each last position in the iterated
	     expression to each first position. */
	  errcode = tre_make_trans(iter->arg->lastpos, iter->arg->firstpos,
				   transitions, counts, offs);
	  if (errcode != REG_OK)
	    return errcode;
	}
      errcode = tre_ast_to_tnfa(iter->arg, transitions, counts, offs);
      break;
    }
  return errcode;
}


#define ERROR_EXIT(err)		  \
  do				  \
    {				  \
      errcode = err;		  \
      if (/*CONSTCOND*/1)	  \
      	goto error_exit;	  \
    }				  \
 while (/*CONSTCOND*/0)


int
regcomp(regex_t *restrict preg, const char *restrict regex, int cflags)
{
  tre_stack_t *stack;
  tre_ast_node_t *tree, *tmp_ast_l, *tmp_ast_r;
  tre_pos_and_tags_t *p;
  int *counts = NULL, *offs = NULL;
  int i, add = 0;
  tre_tnfa_transition_t *transitions, *initial;
  tre_tnfa_t *tnfa = NULL;
  tre_submatch_data_t *submatch_data;
  tre_tag_direction_t *tag_directions = NULL;
  reg_errcode_t errcode;
  tre_mem_t mem;

  /* Parse context. */
  tre_parse_ctx_t parse_ctx;

  /* Allocate a stack used throughout the compilation process for various
     purposes. */
  stack = tre_stack_new(512, 10240, 128);
  if (!stack)
    return REG_ESPACE;
  /* Allocate a fast memory allocator. */
  mem = tre_mem_new();
  if (!mem)
    {
      tre_stack_destroy(stack);
      return REG_ESPACE;
    }

  /* Parse the regexp. */
  memset(&parse_ctx, 0, sizeof(parse_ctx));
  parse_ctx.mem = mem;
  parse_ctx.stack = stack;
  parse_ctx.re = regex;
  parse_ctx.cflags = cflags;
  parse_ctx.max_backref = -1;
  errcode = tre_parse(&parse_ctx);
  if (errcode != REG_OK)
    ERROR_EXIT(errcode);
  preg->re_nsub = parse_ctx.submatch_id - 1;
  tree = parse_ctx.n;

#ifdef TRE_DEBUG
  tre_ast_print(tree);
#endif /* TRE_DEBUG */

  /* Referring to nonexistent subexpressions is illegal. */
  if (parse_ctx.max_backref > (int)preg->re_nsub)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESUBREG);

  /* Allocate the TNFA struct. */
  tnfa = xcalloc(1, sizeof(tre_tnfa_t));
  if (tnfa == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);
  tnfa->have_backrefs = parse_ctx.max_backref >= 0;
  tnfa->have_approx = 0;
  tnfa->num_submatches = parse_ctx.submatch_id;

  /* Set up tags for submatch addressing.  If REG_NOSUB is set and the
     regexp does not have back references, this can be skipped. */
  if (tnfa->have_backrefs || !(cflags & REG_NOSUB))
    {

      /* Figure out how many tags we will need. */
      errcode = tre_add_tags(NULL, stack, tree, tnfa);
      if (errcode != REG_OK)
	ERROR_EXIT(errcode);

      if (tnfa->num_tags > 0)
	{
	  tag_directions = xmalloc(sizeof(*tag_directions)
				   * (tnfa->num_tags + 1));
	  if (tag_directions == NULL)
	    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);
	  tnfa->tag_directions = tag_directions;
	  memset(tag_directions, -1,
		 sizeof(*tag_directions) * (tnfa->num_tags + 1));
	}
      tnfa->minimal_tags = xcalloc((unsigned)tnfa->num_tags * 2 + 1,
				   sizeof(*tnfa->minimal_tags));
      if (tnfa->minimal_tags == NULL)
	ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);

      submatch_data = xcalloc((unsigned)parse_ctx.submatch_id,
			      sizeof(*submatch_data));
      if (submatch_data == NULL)
	ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);
      tnfa->submatch_data = submatch_data;

      errcode = tre_add_tags(mem, stack, tree, tnfa);
      if (errcode != REG_OK)
	ERROR_EXIT(errcode);

    }

  /* Expand iteration nodes. */
  errcode = tre_expand_ast(mem, stack, tree, &parse_ctx.position,
			   tag_directions);
  if (errcode != REG_OK)
    ERROR_EXIT(errcode);

  /* Add a dummy node for the final state.
     XXX - For certain patterns this dummy node can be optimized away,
	   for example "a*" or "ab*".	Figure out a simple way to detect
	   this possibility. */
  tmp_ast_l = tree;
  tmp_ast_r = tre_ast_new_literal(mem, 0, 0, parse_ctx.position++);
  if (tmp_ast_r == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);

  tree = tre_ast_new_catenation(mem, tmp_ast_l, tmp_ast_r);
  if (tree == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);

  errcode = tre_compute_nfl(mem, stack, tree);
  if (errcode != REG_OK)
    ERROR_EXIT(errcode);

  counts = xmalloc(sizeof(int) * parse_ctx.position);
  if (counts == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);

  offs = xmalloc(sizeof(int) * parse_ctx.position);
  if (offs == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);

  for (i = 0; i < parse_ctx.position; i++)
    counts[i] = 0;
  tre_ast_to_tnfa(tree, NULL, counts, NULL);

  add = 0;
  for (i = 0; i < parse_ctx.position; i++)
    {
      offs[i] = add;
      add += counts[i] + 1;
      counts[i] = 0;
    }
  transitions = xcalloc((unsigned)add + 1, sizeof(*transitions));
  if (transitions == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);
  tnfa->transitions = transitions;
  tnfa->num_transitions = add;

  errcode = tre_ast_to_tnfa(tree, transitions, counts, offs);
  if (errcode != REG_OK)
    ERROR_EXIT(errcode);

  tnfa->firstpos_chars = NULL;

  p = tree->firstpos;
  i = 0;
  while (p->position >= 0)
    {
      i++;
      p++;
    }

  initial = xcalloc((unsigned)i + 1, sizeof(tre_tnfa_transition_t));
  if (initial == NULL)
    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);
  tnfa->initial = initial;

  i = 0;
  for (p = tree->firstpos; p->position >= 0; p++)
    {
      initial[i].state = transitions + offs[p->position];
      initial[i].state_id = p->position;
      initial[i].tags = NULL;
      /* Copy the arrays p->tags, and p->params, they are allocated
	 from a tre_mem object. */
      if (p->tags)
	{
	  int j;
	  for (j = 0; p->tags[j] >= 0; j++);
	  initial[i].tags = xmalloc(sizeof(*p->tags) * (j + 1));
	  if (!initial[i].tags)
	    ERROR_EXIT(REG_ESPACE);
	  memcpy(initial[i].tags, p->tags, sizeof(*p->tags) * (j + 1));
	}
      initial[i].assertions = p->assertions;
      i++;
    }
  initial[i].state = NULL;

  tnfa->num_transitions = add;
  tnfa->final = transitions + offs[tree->lastpos[0].position];
  tnfa->num_states = parse_ctx.position;
  tnfa->cflags = cflags;

  tre_mem_destroy(mem);
  tre_stack_destroy(stack);
  xfree(counts);
  xfree(offs);

  preg->TRE_REGEX_T_FIELD = (void *)tnfa;
  return REG_OK;

 error_exit:
  /* Free everything that was allocated and return the error code. */
  tre_mem_destroy(mem);
  if (stack != NULL)
    tre_stack_destroy(stack);
  if (counts != NULL)
    xfree(counts);
  if (offs != NULL)
    xfree(offs);
  preg->TRE_REGEX_T_FIELD = (void *)tnfa;
  regfree(preg);
  return errcode;
}




void
regfree(regex_t *preg)
{
  tre_tnfa_t *tnfa;
  unsigned int i;
  tre_tnfa_transition_t *trans;

  tnfa = (void *)preg->TRE_REGEX_T_FIELD;
  if (!tnfa)
    return;

  for (i = 0; i < tnfa->num_transitions; i++)
    if (tnfa->transitions[i].state)
      {
	if (tnfa->transitions[i].tags)
	  xfree(tnfa->transitions[i].tags);
	if (tnfa->transitions[i].neg_classes)
	  xfree(tnfa->transitions[i].neg_classes);
      }
  if (tnfa->transitions)
    xfree(tnfa->transitions);

  if (tnfa->initial)
    {
      for (trans = tnfa->initial; trans->state; trans++)
	{
	  if (trans->tags)
	    xfree(trans->tags);
	}
      xfree(tnfa->initial);
    }

  if (tnfa->submatch_data)
    {
      for (i = 0; i < tnfa->num_submatches; i++)
	if (tnfa->submatch_data[i].parents)
	  xfree(tnfa->submatch_data[i].parents);
      xfree(tnfa->submatch_data);
    }

  if (tnfa->tag_directions)
    xfree(tnfa->tag_directions);
  if (tnfa->firstpos_chars)
    xfree(tnfa->firstpos_chars);
  if (tnfa->minimal_tags)
    xfree(tnfa->minimal_tags);
  xfree(tnfa);
}