path: root/src/thread
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12 daysavoid set*id/setrlimit misbehavior and hang in vforked/cloned childHEADmasterRich Felker-1/+2
taking the deprecated/dropped vfork spec strictly, doing pretty much anything but execve in the child is wrong and undefined. however, these are commonly needed operations to setup the child state before exec, and historical implementations tolerated them. for single-threaded parents, these operations already worked as expected in the vforked child. however, due to the need for __synccall to synchronize id/resource limit changes among all threads, calling these functions in the vforked child of a multithreaded parent caused a misdirected broadcast signaling of all threads in the parent. these signals could kill the parent entirely if the synccall signal handler had never been installed in the parent, or could be ignored if it had, or could signal/kill one or more utterly wrong processes if the parent already terminated (due to vfork semantics, only possible via fatal signal) and the parent tids were recycled. in any case, the expected number of semaphore posts would never happen, so the child would permanently hang (with all signals blocked) waiting for them. to mitigate this, and also make the normal usage case work as intended, treat the condition where the caller's actual tid does not match the tid in its thread structure as single-threaded, and bypass the entire synccall broadcast operation.
2020-08-30fix i386 __set_thread_area fallbackRich Felker-0/+1
this code is only needed for pre-2.6 kernels, which are not actually supported anyway, and was never tested. the fallback path using SYS_modify_ldt failed to clear the upper bits of %eax (all ones due to SYS_set_thread_area's return value being an error) before modifying %al to attempt a new syscall.
2020-08-27remove redundant pthread struct members repeated for layout purposesRich Felker-1/+1
dtv_copy, canary2, and canary_at_end existed solely to match multiple ABI and asm-accessed layouts simultaneously. now that pthread_arch.h can be included before struct __pthread is defined, the struct layout can depend on macros defined by pthread_arch.h.
2020-07-06fix async-cancel-safety of pthread_cancelRich Felker-1/+4
the previous commit addressing async-signal-safety issues around pthread_kill did not fully fix pthread_cancel, which is also required (albeit rather irrationally) to be async-cancel-safe. without blocking implementation-internal signals, it's possible that, when async cancellation is enabled, a cancel signal sent by another thread interrupts pthread_kill while the killlock for a targeted thread is held. as a result, the calling thread will terminate due to cancellation without ever unlocking the targeted thread's killlock, and thus the targeted thread will be unable to exit.
2020-07-06make thread killlock async-signal-safe for pthread_killRich Felker-5/+18
pthread_kill is required to be AS-safe. that requirement can't be met if the target thread's killlock can be taken in contexts where application-installed signal handlers can run. block signals around use of this lock in all pthread_* functions which target a tid, and reorder blocking/unblocking of signals in pthread_exit so that they're blocked whenever the killlock is held.
2020-05-22restore lock-skipping for processes that return to single-threaded stateRich Felker-5/+7
the design used here relies on the barrier provided by the first lock operation after the process returns to single-threaded state to synchronize with actions by the last thread that exited. by storing the intent to change modes in the same object used to detect whether locking is needed, it's possible to avoid an extra (possibly costly) memory load after the lock is taken.
2020-05-22don't use libc.threads_minus_1 as relaxed atomic for skipping locksRich Felker-1/+1
after all but the last thread exits, the next thread to observe libc.threads_minus_1==0 and conclude that it can skip locking fails to synchronize with any changes to memory that were made by the last-exiting thread. this can produce data races. on some archs, at least x86, memory synchronization is unlikely to be a problem; however, with the inline locks in malloc, skipping the lock also eliminated the compiler barrier, and caused code that needed to re-check chunk in-use bits after obtaining the lock to reuse a stale value, possibly from before the process became single-threaded. this in turn produced corruption of the heap state. some uses of libc.threads_minus_1 remain, especially for allocation of new TLS in the dynamic linker; otherwise, it could be removed entirely. it's made non-volatile to reflect that the remaining accesses are only made under lock on the thread list. instead of libc.threads_minus_1, libc.threaded is now used for skipping locks. the difference is that libc.threaded is permanently true once an additional thread has been created. this will produce some performance regression in processes that are mostly single-threaded but occasionally creating threads. in the future it may be possible to bring back the full lock-skipping, but more care needs to be taken to produce a safe design.
2020-05-22reorder thread list unlink in pthread_exit after all locksRich Felker-8/+11
since the backend for LOCK() skips locking if single-threaded, it's unsafe to make the process appear single-threaded before the last use of lock. this fixes potential unsynchronized access to a linked list via __dl_thread_cleanup.
2019-09-13harden thread start with failed scheduling against broken __cloneRich Felker-1/+1
commit 8a544ee3a2a75af278145b09531177cab4939b41 introduced a dependency of the failure path for explicit scheduling at thread creation on __clone's handling of the start function returning, which should result in SYS_exit. as noted in commit 05870abeaac0588fb9115cfd11f96880a0af2108, the arm version of __clone was broken in this case. in the past, the mips version was also broken; it was fixed in commit 8b2b61e0001281be0dcd3dedc899bf187172fecb. since this code path is pretty much entirely untested (previously only reachable in applications that call the public clone() and return from the start function) and consists of fragile per-arch asm, don't assume it works, at least not until it's been thoroughly tested. instead make the SYS_exit syscall from the start function's failure path.
2019-09-11fix arm __a_barrier_oldkuser when built as thumbRich Felker-2/+2
as noted in commit 05870abeaac0588fb9115cfd11f96880a0af2108, mov lr,pc is not a valid method for saving the return address in code that might be built as thumb. this one is unlikely to matter, since any ISA level that has thumb2 should also have native implementations of atomics that don't involve kuser_helper, and the affected code is only used on very old kernels to begin with.
2019-09-11fix code path where child function returns in arm __clone built as thumbRich Felker-7/+3
mov lr,pc is not a valid way to save the return address in thumb mode since it omits the thumb bit. use a chain of bl and bx to emulate blx. this could be avoided by converting to a .S file with preprocessor conditions to use blx if available, but the time cost here is dominated by the syscall anyway. while making this change, also remove the remnants of support for pre-bx ISA levels. commit 9f290a49bf9ee247d540d3c83875288a7991699c removed the hack from the parent code paths, but left the unnecessary code in the child. keeping it would require rewriting two code paths rather than one, and is useless for reasons described in that commit.
2019-09-06synchronously clean up pthread_create failure due to scheduling errorsRich Felker-13/+18
previously, when pthread_create failed due to inability to set explicit scheduling according to the requested attributes, the nascent thread was detached and made responsible for its own cleanup via the standard pthread_exit code path. this left it consuming resources potentially well after pthread_create returned, in a way that the application could not see or mitigate, and unnecessarily exposed its existence to the rest of the implementation via the global thread list. instead, attempt explicit scheduling early and reuse the failure path for __clone failure if it fails. the nascent thread's exit futex is not needed for unlocking the thread list, since the thread calling pthread_create holds the thread list lock the whole time, so it can be repurposed to ensure the thread has finished exiting. no pthread_exit is needed, and freeing the stack, if needed, can happen just as it would if __clone failed.
2019-09-06set explicit scheduling for new thread from calling thread, not selfRich Felker-21/+12
if setting scheduling properties succeeds, the new thread may end up with lower priority than the caller, and may be unable to continue running due to another intermediate-priority thread. this produces a priority inversion situation for the thread calling pthread_create, since it cannot return until the new thread reports success. originally, the parent was responsible for setting the new thread's priority; commits b8742f32602add243ee2ce74d804015463726899 and 40bae2d32fd6f3ffea437fa745ad38a1fe77b27e changed it as part of trimming down the pthread structure. since then, commit 04335d9260c076cf4d9264bd93dd3b06c237a639 partly reversed the changes, but did not switch responsibilities back. do that now.
2019-09-06fix unsynchronized decrement of thread count on pthread_create errorRich Felker-1/+2
commit 8f11e6127fe93093f81a52b15bb1537edc3fc8af wrongly documented that all changes to libc.threads_minus_1 were guarded by the thread list lock, but the decrement for failed SYS_clone took place after the thread list lock was released.
2019-08-06in arm cancellation point asm, don't unnecessarily preserve link registerPatrick Oppenlander-4/+4
The only reason we needed to preserve the link register was because we were using a branch-link instruction to branch to __cp_cancel. Replacing this with a branch means we can avoid the save/restore as the link register is no longer modified.
2019-08-02fix missing declarations for pthread_join extensions in source fileRich Felker-0/+1
per policy, define the feature test macro to get declarations for the pthread_tryjoin_np and pthread_timedjoin_np functions. in the past this has been only for checking; with 32-bit archs getting 64-bit time_t it will also be necessary for symbols to get redirected correctly.
2019-07-29remove x32 syscall timespec fixup hacksRich Felker-43/+4
the x32 syscall interfaces treat timespec's tv_nsec member as 64-bit despite the API type being long and long being 32-bit in the ABI. this is no problem for syscalls that store timespecs to userspace as results, but caused uninitialized padding to be misinterpreted as the high bits in syscalls that take timespecs as input. since the beginning of the port, we've dealt with this situation with hacks in syscall_arch.h, and injected between __syscall_cp_c and __syscall_cp_asm, to special-case the syscall numbers that involve timespecs as inputs and copy them to a form suitable to pass to the kernel. commit 40aa18d55ab763e69ad16d0cf1cebea708ffde47 set the stage for removal of these hacks by letting us treat the "normal" x32 syscalls dealing with timespec as if they're x32's "time64" syscalls, effectively making x32 ax "time64-only 32-bit arch" like riscv32 will be when it's added. since then, all users of syscalls that x32's syscall_arch.h had hacks for have been updated to use time64 syscalls, so the hacks can be removed. there are still at least a few other timespec-related syscalls broken on x32, which were overlooked when the x32 hacks were done or added later. these include at least recvmmsg, adjtimex/clock_adjtime, and timerfd_settime, and they will be fixed independently later on.
2019-07-28futex wait operations: add time64 syscall support, decouple 32-bit time_tRich Felker-3/+41
thanks to the original factorization using the __timedwait function, there are no FUTEX_WAIT calls anywhere else, giving us a single point of change to make nearly all the timed thread primitives time64-ready. the one exception is the FUTEX_LOCK_PI command for PI mutex timedlock. I haven't tried to make these two points share code, since they have different fallbacks (no non-private fallback needed for PI since PI was added later) and FUTEX_LOCK_PI isn't a cancellation point (thus allowing the whole code path to inline into pthread_mutex_timedlock). as for other changes in this series, the time64 syscall is used only if it's the only one defined for the arch, or if the requested timeout does not fit in 32 bits. on current 32-bit archs where time_t is a 32-bit type, this makes it statically unreachable. on 64-bit archs, there are only superficial changes to the code after preprocessing. on current 32-bit archs, the time is passed via an intermediate copy to remove the assumption that time_t is a 32-bit type.
2019-07-27refactor thrd_sleep and nanosleep in terms of clock_nanosleepRich Felker-1/+2
for namespace-safety with thrd_sleep, this requires an alias, which is also added. this eliminates all but one direct call point for nanosleep syscalls, and arranges that 64-bit time_t conversion logic will only need to exist in one file rather than three. as a bonus, clock_nanosleep with CLOCK_REALTIME and empty flags is now implemented as SYS_nanosleep, thereby working on older kernels that may lack POSIX clocks functionality.
2019-06-14add riscv64 architecture supportRich Felker-0/+76
Author: Alex Suykov <> Author: Aric Belsito <> Author: Drew DeVault <> Author: Michael Clark <> Author: Michael Forney <> Author: Stefan O'Rear <> This port has involved the work of many people over several years. I have tried to ensure that everyone with substantial contributions has been credited above; if any omissions are found they will be noted later in an update to the authors/contributors list in the COPYRIGHT file. The version committed here comes from the riscv/riscv-musl repo's commit 3fe7e2c75df78eef42dcdc352a55757729f451e2, with minor changes by me for issues found during final review: - a_ll/a_sc atomics are removed (according to the ISA spec, lr/sc are not safe to use in separate inline asm fragments) - a_cas[_p] is fixed to be a memory barrier - the call from the _start assembly into the C part of crt1/ldso is changed to allow for the possibility that the linker does not place them nearby each other. - DTP_OFFSET is defined correctly so that local-dynamic TLS works - reloc.h LDSO_ARCH logic is simplified and made explicit. - unused, non-functional crti/n asm files are removed. - an empty .sdata section is added to crt1 so that the __global_pointer reference is resolvable. - indentation style errors in some asm files are fixed.
2019-04-10remove external __syscall function and last remaining usersRich Felker-1/+1
the weak version of __syscall_cp_c was using a tail call to __syscall to avoid duplicating the 6-argument syscall code inline in small static-linked programs, but now that __syscall no longer exists, the inline expansion is no longer duplication. the syscall.h machinery suppported up to 7 syscall arguments, only via an external __syscall function, but we presently have no syscall call points that actually make use of that many, and the kernel only defines 7-argument calling conventions for arm, powerpc (32-bit), and sh. if it turns out we need them in the future, they can easily be added.
2019-04-10overhaul i386 syscall mechanism not to depend on external asm sourceRich Felker-0/+1
this is the first part of a series of patches intended to make __syscall fully self-contained in the object file produced using syscall.h, which will make it possible for crt1 code to perform syscalls. the (confusingly named) i386 __vsyscall mechanism, which this commit removes, was introduced before the presence of a valid thread pointer was mandatory; back then the thread pointer was setup lazily only if threads were used. the intent was to be able to perform syscalls using the kernel's fast entry point in the VDSO, which can use the sysenter (Intel) or syscall (AMD) instruction instead of int $128, but without inlining an access to the __syscall global at the point of each syscall, which would incur a significant size cost from PIC setup everywhere. the mechanism also shuffled registers/calling convention around to avoid spills of call-saved registers, and to avoid allocating ebx or ebp via asm constraints, since there are plenty of broken-but-supported compiler versions which are incapable of allocating ebx with -fPIC or ebp with -fno-omit-frame-pointer. the new mechanism preserves the properties of avoiding spills and avoiding allocation of ebx/ebp in constraints, but does it inline, using some fairly simple register shuffling, and uses a field of the thread structure rather than global data for the vdso-provided syscall code address. for now, the external __syscall function is refactored not to use the old __vsyscall so it can be kept, but the intent is to remove it too.
2019-04-01fix harmless-by-chance typo in priority inheritance mutex codeRich Felker-1/+1
commit 54ca677983d47529bab8752315ac1a2b49888870 inadvertently introduced bitwise and where logical and was intended. since the right-hand operand is always 0 or -1 whenever the left-hand operand is nonzero, the behavior happened to be equivalent.
2019-03-31implement priority inheritance mutexesRich Felker-8/+93
priority inheritance is a feature to mitigate priority inversion situations, where a execution of a medium-priority thread can unboundedly block forward progress of a high-priority thread when a lock it needs is held by a low-priority thread. the natural way to do priority inheritance would be with a simple futex flag to donate the calling thread's priority to a target thread while it waits on the futex. unfortunately, linux does not offer such an interface, but instead insists on implementing the whole locking protocol in kernelspace with special futex commands that exist solely for the purpose of doing PI mutexes. this would require the entire "trylock" logic to be duplicated in the timedlock code path for PI mutexes, since, once the previous lock holder releases the lock and the futex call returns, the lock is already held by the caller. obviously such code duplication is undesirable. instead, I've made the PI timedlock success path set the mutex lock count to -1, which can be thought of as "not yet complete", since a lock count of 0 is "locked, with no recursive references". a simple branch in a non-hot path of pthread_mutex_trylock can then see and act on this state, skipping past the code that would check and take the lock to the same code path that runs after the lock is obtained for a non-PI mutex. because we're forced to let the kernel perform the actual lock and unlock operations whenever the mutex is contended, we have to patch things up when it does the wrong thing: 1. the lock operation is not aware of whether the mutex is error-checking, so it will always fail with EDEADLK rather than deadlocking. 2. the lock operation is not aware of whether the mutex is robust, so it will successfully obtain mutexes in the owner-died state even if they're non-robust, whereas this operation should deadlock. 3. the unlock operation always sets the lock value to zero, whereas for robust mutexes, we want to set it to a special value indicating that the mutex obtained after its owner died was unlocked without marking it consistent, so that future operations all fail with ENOTRECOVERABLE. the first of these is easy to solve, just by performing a futex wait on a dummy futex address to simulate deadlock or ETIMEDOUT as appropriate. but problems 2 and 3 interact in a nasty way. to solve problem 2, we need to back out the spurious success. but if waiters are present -- which we can't just ignore, because even if we don't want to wake them, the calling thread is incorrectly inheriting their priorities -- this requires using the kernel's unlock operation, which will zero the lock value, thereby losing the "owner died with lock held" state. to solve these problems, we overload the mutex's waiters field, which is unused for PI mutexes since they don't call the normal futex wait functions, as an indicator that the PI mutex is permanently non-lockable. originally I wanted to use the count field, but there is one code path that needs to access this flag without synchronization: trylock's CAS failure path needs to be able to decide whether to fail with EBUSY or ENOTRECOVERABLE, the waiters field is already treated as a relaxed-order atomic in our memory model, so this works out nicely.
2019-03-29clean up access to mutex type in pthread_mutex_trylockRich Felker-2/+2
there was no point in masking off the pshared bit when first loading the type, since every subsequent access involves a mask anyway. not masking it may avoid a subsequent load to check the pshared flag, and it's just simpler.
2019-03-21fix data race choosing next key slot in pthread_key_createRich Felker-1/+1
commit 84d061d5a31c9c773e29e1e2b1ffe8cb9557bc58 wrongly moved the access to the global next_key outside of the scope of the lock. the error manifested as spurious failure to find an available key slot under concurrent calls to pthread_key_create, since the stopping condition could be met after only a small number of slots were examined.
2019-03-13fix namespace violation in dependencies of mtx_lockRich Felker-1/+1
commit 2de29bc994029b903a366b8a4a9f8c3c3ee2be90 left behind one reference to pthread_mutex_trylock. fixing this also improves code generation due to the namespace-safe version being hidde.
2019-02-22add membarrier syscall wrapper, refactor dynamic tls install to use itRich Felker-2/+2
the motivation for this change is twofold. first, it gets the fallback logic out of the dynamic linker, improving code readability and organization. second, it provides application code that wants to use the membarrier syscall, which depends on preregistration of intent before the process becomes multithreaded unless unbounded latency is acceptable, with a symbol that, when linked, ensures that this registration happens.
2019-02-22make thread list lock a recursive lockRich Felker-11/+21
this is a prerequisite for factoring the membarrier fallback code into a function that can be called from a context with the thread list already locked or independently.
2019-02-18install dynamic tls synchronously at dlopen, streamline accessRich Felker-14/+3
previously, dynamic loading of new libraries with thread-local storage allocated the storage needed for all existing threads at load-time, precluding late failure that can't be handled, but left installation in existing threads to take place lazily on first access. this imposed an additional memory access and branch on every dynamic tls access, and imposed a requirement, which was not actually met, that the dynamic tlsdesc asm functions preserve all call-clobbered registers before calling C code to to install new dynamic tls on first access. the x86[_64] versions of this code wrongly omitted saving and restoring of fpu/vector registers, assuming the compiler would not generate anything using them in the called C code. the arm and aarch64 versions saved known existing registers, but failed to be future-proof against expansion of the register file. now that we track live threads in a list, it's possible to install the new dynamic tls for each thread at dlopen time. for the most part, synchronization is not needed, because if a thread has not synchronized with completion of the dlopen, there is no way it can meaningfully request access to a slot past the end of the old dtv, which remains valid for accessing slots which already existed. however, it is necessary to ensure that, if a thread sees its new dtv pointer, it sees correct pointers in each of the slots that existed prior to the dlopen. my understanding is that, on most real-world coherency architectures including all the ones we presently support, a built-in consume order guarantees this; however, don't rely on that. instead, the SYS_membarrier syscall is used to ensure that all threads see the stores to the slots of their new dtv prior to the installation of the new dtv. if it is not supported, the same is implemented in userspace via signals, using the same mechanism as __synccall. the __tls_get_addr function, variants, and dynamic tlsdesc asm functions are all updated to remove the fallback paths for claiming new dynamic tls, and are now all branch-free.
2019-02-17fix data race between new pthread_key_delete and dtor executionRich Felker-2/+4
access to clear the entry in each thread's tsd array for the key being deleted was not synchronized with __pthread_tsd_run_dtors. I probably made this mistake from a mistaken belief that the thread list lock was held during the latter, which of course is not possible since it executes application code in a still-live-thread context. while we're at it, expand the interval during which signals are blocked to cover taking the write lock on key_lock, so that a signal at an inopportune time doesn't block forward progress of readers.
2019-02-16introduce namespace-safe rwlock aliases; use in pthread_key_createRich Felker-20/+34
commit 84d061d5a31c9c773e29e1e2b1ffe8cb9557bc58 inadvertently introduced namespace violations by using the pthread-namespace rwlock functions in pthread_key_create, which is in turn used for C11 tss. fix that and possible future uses of rwlocks elsewhere.
2019-02-16rewrite pthread_key_delete to use global thread listRich Felker-75/+19
with the availability of the thread list, there is no need to mark tsd key slots dirty and clean them up only when a free slot can't be found. instead, directly iterate threads and clear any value associated with the key being deleted. no synchronization is necessary for the clearing, since there is no way the slot can be accessed without having synchronized with the creation of a new key occupying the same slot, which is already sequenced after and synchronized with the deletion of the old key.
2019-02-16rewrite __synccall in terms of global thread listRich Felker-123/+59
the __synccall mechanism provides stop-the-world synchronous execution of a callback in all threads of the process. it is used to implement multi-threaded setuid/setgid operations, since Linux lacks them at the kernel level, and for some other less-critical purposes. this change eliminates dependency on /proc/self/task to determine the set of live threads, which in addition to being an unwanted dependency and a potential point of resource-exhaustion failure, turned out to be inaccurate. test cases provided by Alexey Izbyshev showed that it could fail to reflect newly created threads. due to how the presignaling phase worked, this usually yielded a deadlock if hit, but in the worst case it could also result in threads being silently missed (allowed to continue running without executing the callback).
2019-02-15track all live threads in an AS-safe, fully-consistent linked listRich Felker-38/+81
the hard problem here is unlinking threads from a list when they exit without creating a window of inconsistency where the kernel task for a thread still exists and is still executing instructions in userspace, but is not reflected in the list. the magic solution here is getting rid of per-thread exit futex addresses (set_tid_address), and instead using the exit futex to unlock the global thread list. since pthread_join can no longer see the thread enter a detach_state of EXITED (which depended on the exit futex address pointing to the detach_state), it must now observe the unlocking of the thread list lock before it can unmap the joined thread and return. it doesn't actually have to take the lock. for this, a __tl_sync primitive is offered, with a signature that will allow it to be enhanced for quick return even under contention on the lock, if needed. for now, the exiting thread always performs a futex wake on its detach_state. a future change could optimize this out except when there is already a joiner waiting. initial/dynamic variants of detached state no longer need to be tracked separately, since the futex address is always set to the global list lock, not a thread-local address that could become invalid on detached thread exit. all detached threads, however, must perform a second sigprocmask syscall to block implementation-internal signals, since locking the thread list with them already blocked is not permissible. the arch-independent C version of __unmapself no longer needs to take a lock or setup its own futex address to release the lock, since it must necessarily be called with the thread list lock already held, guaranteeing exclusive access to the temporary stack. changes to libc.threads_minus_1 no longer need to be atomic, since they are guarded by the thread list lock. it is largely vestigial at this point, and can be replaced with a cheaper boolean indicating whether the process is multithreaded at some point in the future.
2019-02-15always block signals for starting new threads, refactor start argsRich Felker-56/+56
whether signals need to be blocked at thread start, and whether unblocking is necessary in the entry point function, has historically depended on intricacies of the cancellation design and on whether there are scheduling operations to perform on the new thread before its successful creation can be committed. future changes to track an AS-safe list of live threads will require signals to be blocked whenever changes are made to the list, so ... prior to commits b8742f32602add243ee2ce74d804015463726899 and 40bae2d32fd6f3ffea437fa745ad38a1fe77b27e, a signal mask for the entry function to restore was part of the pthread structure. it was removed to trim down the size of the structure, which both saved a small amount of stack space and improved code generation on archs where small immediate displacements are less costly than arbitrary ones, by limiting the range of offsets between the base of the thread structure, its members, and the thread pointer. these commits moved the saved mask to a special structure used only when special scheduling was needed, in which case the pthread_create caller and new thread had to synchronize with each other and could use this memory to pass a mask. this commit partially reverts the above two commits, but instead of putting the mask back in the pthread structure, it moves all "start argument" members out of the pthread structure, trimming it down further, and puts them in a separate structure passed on the new thread's stack. the code path for explicit scheduling of the new thread is also changed to synchronize with the calling thread in such a way to avoid spurious futex wakes.
2019-02-12redesign robust mutex states to eliminate data races on type fieldRich Felker-12/+23
in order to implement ENOTRECOVERABLE, the implementation has traditionally used a bit of the mutex type field to indicate that it's recovered after EOWNERDEAD and will go into ENOTRECOVERABLE state if pthread_mutex_consistent is not called before unlocking. while it's only the thread that holds the lock that needs access to this information (except possibly for the sake of pthread_mutex_consistent choosing between EINVAL and EPERM for erroneous calls), the change to the type field is formally a data race with all other threads that perform any operation on the mutex. no individual bits race, and no write races are possible, so things are "okay" in some sense, but it's still not good. this patch moves the recovery/consistency state to the mutex owner/lock field which is rightfully mutable. bit 30, the same bit the kernel uses with a zero owner to indicate that the previous owner died holding the lock, is now used with a nonzero owner to indicate that the mutex is held but has not yet been marked consistent. note that the kernel ABI also reserves bit 29 not to appear in any tid, so the sentinel value we use for ENOTRECOVERABLE, 0x7fffffff, does not clash with any tid plus bit 30.
2019-01-16fix unintended linking dependency of pthread_key_create on __synccallRich Felker-0/+6
commit 84d061d5a31c9c773e29e1e2b1ffe8cb9557bc58 attempted to do this already, but omitted from pthread_key_create.c the weak definition of __pthread_key_delete_synccall, so that the definition provided by pthread_key_delete.c was always pulled in. based on patch by Markus Wichmann, but with a weak alias rather than weak reference for consistency/policy about dependence on tooling features.
2018-12-19make sem_wait and sem_timedwait interruptible by signalsRich Felker-1/+1
this reverts commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1, which was based on a mistaken reading of POSIX due to inconsistency between the description (which requires return upon interruption by a signal) and the errors list (which wrongly lists EINTR as "may fail"). since the previously-introduced behavior was a workaround for an old kernel bug to ensure safety of correct programs that were not hardened against the bug, an effort has been made to preserve it for programs which do not use interrupting signal handlers. the stage for this was set in commit a63c0104e496f7ba78b64be3cd299b41e8cd427f, which makes the futex __timedwait backend suppress EINTR if it's seen when no interrupting signal handlers have been installed. based loosely on a patch submitted by Orivej Desh, but with unnecessary additional changes removed.
2018-12-18don't fail pthread_sigmask/sigprocmask on invalid how when set is nullRich Felker-1/+1
the resolution of Austin Group issue #1132 changes the requirement to fail so that it only applies when the set argument (new mask) is non-null. this change was made for consistency with the description, which specified "if set is a null pointer, the value of the argument how is not significant".
2018-12-18add __timedwait backend workaround for old kernels where futex EINTRsRich Felker-0/+8
prior to linux 2.6.22, futex wait could fail with EINTR even for non-interrupting (SA_RESTART) signals. this was no problem provided the caller simply restarted the wait, but sem_[timed]wait is required by POSIX to return when interrupted by a signal. commit a113434cd68ce30642c4995b1caadcd084be6f09 introduced this behavior, and commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1 reverted it based on a mistaken belief that it was not required. this belief stems from a bug in the specification: the description requires the function to return when interrupted, but the errors section marks EINTR as a "may fail" condition rather than a "shall fail" one. since there does seem to be significant value in the change made in commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1, making it so that programs that call sem_wait without checking for EINTR don't silently make forward progress without obtaining the semaphore or treat it as a fatal error and abort, add a behind-the-scenes mechanism in the __timedwait backend to suppress EINTR in programs that have never installed interrupting signal handlers, and have sigaction track and report this state. this way the semaphore code is not cluttered by workarounds and can be updated (to be done in next commit) to reflect the high-level logic for conforming behavior. these changes are based loosely on a patch by Markus Wichmann, with the main changes being atomic update to flag object and moving the workaround from sem_timedwait to the __timedwait futex backend.
2018-10-12combine arch ABI's DTP_OFFSET into DTV pointersRich Felker-2/+2
as explained in commit 6ba5517a460c6c438f64d69464fdfc3269a4c91a, some archs use an offset (typicaly -0x8000) with their DTPOFF relocations, which __tls_get_addr needs to invert. on affected archs, which lack direct support for large immediates, this can cost multiple extra instructions in the hot path. instead, incorporate the DTP_OFFSET into the DTV entries. this means they are no longer valid pointers, so store them as an array of uintptr_t rather than void *; this also makes it easier to access slot 0 as a valid slot count. commit e75b16cf93ebbc1ce758d3ea6b2923e8b2457c68 left behind cruft in two places, __reset_tls and __tls_get_new, from back when it was possible to have uninitialized gap slots indicated by a null pointer in the DTV. since the concept of null pointer is no longer meaningful with an offset applied, remove this cruft. presently there are no archs with both TLSDESC and nonzero DTP_OFFSET, but the dynamic TLSDESC relocation code is also updated to apply an inverted offset to its offset field, so that the offset DTV would not impose a runtime cost in TLSDESC resolver functions.
2018-09-18limit the configurable default stack/guard size for threadsRich Felker-6/+10
limit to 8MB/1MB, repectively. since the defaults cannot be reduced once increased, excessively large settings would lead to an unrecoverably broken state. this change is in preparation to allow defaults to be increased via program headers at the linker level. creation of threads that really need larger sizes needs to be done with an explicit attribute.
2018-09-18remove redundant declarations of __default_stacksize, __default_guardsizeRich Felker-8/+0
these are now declared in pthread_impl.h.
2018-09-18fix benign data race in pthread_attr_initRich Felker-0/+2
access to defaults should be protected against concurrent changes.
2018-09-18fix deletion of pthread tsd keys that still have non-null values storedRich Felker-18/+101
per POSIX, deletion of a key for which some threads still have values stored is permitted, and newly created keys must initially hold the null value in all threads. these properties were not met by our implementation; if a key was deleted with values left and a new key was created in the same slot, the old values were still visible. moreover, due to lack of any synchronization in pthread_key_delete, there was a TOCTOU race whereby a concurrent pthread_exit could attempt to call a null destructor pointer for the newly orphaned value. this commit introduces a solution based on __synccall, stopping the world to zero out the values for deleted keys, but only does so lazily when all key slots have been exhausted. pthread_key_delete is split off into a separate translation unit so that static-linked programs which only create keys but never delete them will not pull in the __synccall machinery. a global rwlock is added to synchronize creation and deletion of keys with dtor execution. since the dtor execution loop now has to release and retake the lock around its call to each dtor, checks are made not to call the nodtor dummy function for keys which lack a dtor.
2018-09-15check for kernel support before allowing robust mutex creationRich Felker-1/+17
on some archs, linux support for futex operations (including robust_list processing) that depend on kernelspace CAS is conditional on a runtime check. as of linux 4.18, this check fails unconditionally on nommu archs that perform it, and spurious failure on powerpc64 was observed but not explained. it's also possible that futex support is omitted entirely, or that the kernel is older than 2.6.17. for most futex ops, ENOSYS does not yield hard breakage; userspace will just spin at 100% cpu load. but for robust mutexes, correct behavior depends on the kernel functionality. use the get_robust_list syscall to probe for support at the first call to pthread_mutexattr_setrobust, and block creation of robust mutexes with a reportable error if they can't be supported.
2018-09-12split internal lock API out of libc.h, creating lock.hRich Felker-1/+8
this further reduces the number of source files which need to include libc.h and thereby be potentially exposed to libc global state and internals. this will also facilitate further improvements like adding an inline fast-path, if we want to do so later.
2018-09-12reduce spurious inclusion of libc.hRich Felker-8/+1
libc.h was intended to be a header for access to global libc state and related interfaces, but ended up included all over the place because it was the way to get the weak_alias macro. most of the inclusions removed here are places where weak_alias was needed. a few were recently introduced for hidden. some go all the way back to when libc.h defined CANCELPT_BEGIN and _END, and all (wrongly implemented) cancellation points had to include it. remaining spurious users are mostly callers of the LOCK/UNLOCK macros and files that use the LFS64 macro to define the awful *64 aliases. in a few places, new inclusion of libc.h is added because several internal headers no longer implicitly include libc.h. declarations for __lockfile and __unlockfile are moved from libc.h to stdio_impl.h so that the latter does not need libc.h. putting them in libc.h made no sense at all, since the macros in stdio_impl.h are needed to use them correctly anyway.
2018-09-12remove unused __futex function and source fileRich Felker-7/+0
the direct syscall or various thin and mostly-inline wrappers around it are used instead internally. at some point a public futex function should be added, but it's not yet clear what the signature should be, and in the mean time this file is not useful.