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2020-02-05remove legacy time32 timer[fd] syscalls from public syscall.hRich Felker-4/+4
this extends commit 5a105f19b5aae79dd302899e634b6b18b3dcd0d6, removing timer[fd]_settime and timer[fd]_gettime. the timerfd ones are likely to have been used in software that started using them before it could rely on libc exposing functions.
2020-02-05remove further legacy time32 clock syscalls from public syscall.hRich Felker-4/+4
this extends commit 5a105f19b5aae79dd302899e634b6b18b3dcd0d6, removing clock_settime, clock_getres, clock_nanosleep, and settimeofday.
2020-01-30remove legacy clock_gettime and gettimeofday from public syscall.hRich Felker-2/+2
some nontrivial number of applications have historically performed direct syscalls for these operations rather than using the public functions. such usage is invalid now that time_t is 64-bit and these syscalls no longer match the types they are used with, and it was already harmful before (by suppressing use of vdso). since syscall() has no type safety, incorrect usage of these syscalls can't be caught at compile-time. so, without manually inspecting or running additional tools to check sources, the risk of such errors slipping through is high. this patch renames the syscalls on 32-bit archs to clock_gettime32 and gettimeofday_time32, so that applications using the original names will fail to build without being fixed. note that there are a number of other syscalls that may also be unsafe to use directly after the time64 switchover, but (1) these are the main two that seem to be in widespread use, and (2) most of the others continue to have valid usage with a null timeval/timespec argument, as the argument is an optional timeout or similar.
2019-12-30add clone3 syscall number from linux v5.3Szabolcs Nagy-0/+1
the syscall number is reserved on all targets, but it is not wired up on all targets, see linux commit 8f6ccf6159aed1f04c6d179f61f6fb2691261e84 Merge tag 'clone3-v5.3' of ... brauner/linux linux commit 8f3220a806545442f6f26195bc491520f5276e7c arch: wire-up clone3() syscall linux commit 7f192e3cd316ba58c88dfa26796cf77789dd9872 fork: add clone3
2019-12-30add pidfd_open syscall number from linux v5.3Szabolcs Nagy-0/+1
see linux commit 7615d9e1780e26e0178c93c55b73309a5dc093d7 arch: wire-up pidfd_open() linux commit 32fcb426ec001cb6d5a4a195091a8486ea77e2df pid: add pidfd_open()
2019-11-02move time_t and suseconds_t definitions to common alltypes.h.inRich Felker-3/+0
now that all 32-bit archs have 64-bit time_t (and suseconds_t), the arch-provided _Int64 macro (long or long long, as appropriate) can be used to define them, and arch-specific definitions are no longer needed.
2019-11-02move time64 ioctl numbers to generic bits/ioctl.hRich Felker-4/+0
now that all 32-bit archs have 64-bit time types, the values for the time-related ioctls can be shared. the mechanism for this is an arch/generic version of the bits header. archs which don't use the generic header still need to duplicate the definitions. x32, which does not use the new time64 values of the macros, already has its own overrides, so this commit does not affect it.
2019-11-02move time64 socket options from arch bits to top-level sys/socket.hRich Felker-5/+0
now that all 32-bit archs have 64-bit time types, the values for the time-related socket option macros can be treated as universal for 32-bit archs. the sys/socket.h mechanism for this predates arch/generic and is instead in the top-level header. x32, which does not use the new time64 values of the macros, already has its own overrides, so this commit does not affect it.
2019-11-02switch all existing 32-bit archs to 64-bit time_tRich Felker-20/+44
this commit preserves ABI fully for existing interface boundaries between libc and libc consumers (applications or libraries), by retaining existing symbol names for the legacy 32-bit interfaces and redirecting sources compiled against the new headers to alternate symbol names. this does not necessarily, however, preserve the pairwise ABI of libc consumers with one another; where they use time_t-derived types in their interfaces with one another, it may be necessary to synchronize updates with each other. the intent is that ABI resulting from this commit already be stable and permanent, but it will not be officially so until a release is made. changes to some header-defined types that do not play any role in the ABI between libc and its consumers may still be subject to change. mechanically, the changes made by this commit for each 32-bit arch are as follows: - _REDIR_TIME64 is defined to activate the symbol redirections in public headers - COMPAT_SRC_DIRS is defined in arch.mak to activate build of ABI compat shims to serve as definitions for the original symbol names - time_t and suseconds_t definitions are changed to long long (64-bit) - IPC_STAT definition is changed to add the IPC_TIME64 bit (0x100), triggering conversion of semid_ds, shmid_ds, and msqid_ds split low/high time bits into new time_t members - structs semid_ds, shmid_ds, msqid_ds, and stat are modified to add new 64-bit time_t/timespec members at the end, maintaining existing layout of other members. - socket options (SO_*) and ioctl (sockios) command macros are redefined to use the kernel's "_NEW" values. in addition, on archs where vdso clock_gettime is used, the VDSO_CGT_SYM macro definition in syscall_arch.h is changed to use a new time64 vdso function if available, and a new VDSO_CGT32_SYM macro is added for use as fallback on kernels lacking time64.
2019-10-17move pthread types out of per-arch alltypes.hRich Felker-8/+0
policy has long been that these definitions are purely a function of whether long/pointer is 32- or 64-bit, and that they are not allowed to vary per-arch. move the definition to the shared fragment, using integer constant expressions in terms of sizeof to vary the array dimensions appropriately. I'm not sure whether this is more or less ugly than using preprocessor conditionals and two sets of definitions here, but either way is a lot less ugly than repeating the same thing for every arch.
2019-10-17define LONG_MAX via arch alltypes.h, strip down bits/limits.hRich Felker-7/+2
LLONG_MAX is uniform for all archs we support and plenty of header and code level logic assumes it is, so it does not make sense for limits.h bits mechanism to pretend it's variable. LONG_BIT can be defined in terms of LONG_MAX; there's no reason to put it in bits. by moving LONG_MAX definition to __LONG_MAX in alltypes.h and moving LLONG_MAX out of bits, there are now no plain-C limits that are defined in the bits header, so the bits header only needs to be included in the POSIX or extended profiles. this allows the feature test macro logic to be removed from the bits header, facilitating a long-term goal of getting such logic out of bits. having __LONG_MAX in alltypes.h will allow further generalization of headers. archs without a constant PAGESIZE no longer need bits/limits.h at all.
2019-10-17remove use of endian.h from arch reloc.h headers, clean upRich Felker-2/+0
building on commit 97d35a552ec5b6ddf7923dd2f9a8eb973526acea, __BYTE_ORDER is now available wherever alltypes.h is included. since reloc.h is only used from src/internal/dynlink.h, it can be assumed that __BYTE_ORDER is exposed. reloc.h is not permitted to be included in other contexts, and generally, like most arch headers, lacks inclusion guards that would allow such usage. the mips64 version mistakenly included such guards; they are removed for consistency.
2019-10-17move __BYTE_ORDER definition to alltypes.hRich Felker-5/+6
this change is motivated by the intersection of several factors. presently, despite being a nonstandard header, endian.h is exposing the unprefixed byte order macros and functions only if _BSD_SOURCE or _GNU_SOURCE is defined. this is to accommodate use of endian.h from other headers, including bits headers, which need to define structure layout in terms of endianness. with time64 switch-over, even more headers will need to do this. at the same time, the resolution of Austin Group issue 162 makes endian.h a standard header for POSIX-future, requiring that it expose the unprefixed macros and the functions even in standards-conforming profiles. changes to meet this new requirement would break existing internal usage of endian.h by causing it to violate namespace where it's used. instead, have the arch's alltypes.h define __BYTE_ORDER, either as a fixed constant or depending on the right arch-specific predefined macros for determining endianness. explicit literals 1234 and 4321 are used instead of __LITTLE_ENDIAN and __BIG_ENDIAN so that there's no danger of getting the wrong result if a macro is undefined and implicitly evaluates to 0 at the preprocessor level. the powerpc (32-bit) bits/endian.h being removed had logic for varying endianness, but our powerpc arch has never supported that and has always been big-endian-only. this logic is not carried over to the new __BYTE_ORDER definition in alltypes.h.
2019-10-17remove per-arch definitions for va_listRich Felker-3/+0
now that commit f7f1079796abc6f97c69521d2334e9c7d3945dd8 removed the legacy i386 conditional definition, va_list is in no way arch-specific, and has no reason to be in the future. move it to the shared part of
2019-09-11add new syscall numbers from linux v5.2Szabolcs Nagy-0/+6
new mount api syscalls were added, same numers on all targets, see linux commit a07b20004793d8926f78d63eb5980559f7813404 vfs: syscall: Add open_tree(2) to reference or clone a mount linux commit 2db154b3ea8e14b04fee23e3fdfd5e9d17fbc6ae vfs: syscall: Add move_mount(2) to move mounts around linux commit 24dcb3d90a1f67fe08c68a004af37df059d74005 vfs: syscall: Add fsopen() to prepare for superblock creation linux commit ecdab150fddb42fe6a739335257949220033b782 vfs: syscall: Add fsconfig() for configuring and managing a context linux commit 93766fbd2696c2c4453dd8e1070977e9cd4e6b6d vfs: syscall: Add fsmount() to create a mount for a superblock linux commit cf3cba4a429be43e5527a3f78859b1bfd9ebc5fb vfs: syscall: Add fspick() to select a superblock for reconfiguration linux commit 9c8ad7a2ff0bfe58f019ec0abc1fb965114dde7d uapi, x86: Fix the syscall numbering of the mount API syscalls [ver #2] linux commit d8076bdb56af5e5918376cd1573a6b0007fc1a89 uapi: Wire up the mount API syscalls on non-x86 arches [ver #2]
2019-08-02move IPC_STAT definition to a new bits/ipcstat.h fileRich Felker-0/+1
otherwise, 32-bit archs that could otherwise share the generic bits/ipc.h would need to duplicate the struct ipc_perm definition, obscuring the fact that it's the same. sysvipc is not widely used and these headers are not commonly included, so there is no performance gain to be had by limiting the number of indirectly included files here. files with the existing time32 definition of IPC_STAT are added to all current 32-bit archs now, so that when it's changed the change will show up as a change rather than addition of a new file where it's less obvious that the value is changing vs the generic one that was used before.
2019-07-29duplicate generic bits/msg.h for each arch using it, in prep to changeRich Felker-0/+15
2019-07-29duplicate generic bits/sem.h for each arch using it, in prep to changeRich Felker-0/+16
2019-07-29remove trailing newlines from various versions of bits/shm.hRich Felker-1/+0
2019-07-29duplicate generic bits/shm.h for each arch using it, in prep to changeRich Felker-0/+28
there are more archs sharing the generic 64-bit version of the struct, which is uniform and much more reasonable, than sharing the current "generic" one, and depending on how time64 sysvipc is done for 32-bit archs, even more may be sharing the "64-bit version" in the future. so, duplicate the current generic to all archs using it (arm, i386, m68k, microblaze, or1k) so that the generic can be changed freely. this is recorded as its own commit mainly as a hint to git tooling, to assist in copy/move tracking.
2019-07-18decouple struct stat from kernel typeRich Felker-0/+21
presently, all archs/ABIs have struct stat matching the kernel stat[64] type, except mips/mipsn32/mips64 which do conversion hacks in syscall_arch.h to work around bugs in the kernel type. this patch completely decouples them and adds a translation step to the success path of fstatat. at present, this is just a gratuitous copying, but it opens up multiple possibilities for future support for 64-bit time_t on 32-bit archs and for cleaned-up/unified ABIs. for clarity, the mips hacks are not yet removed in this commit, so the mips kstat structs still correspond to the output of the hacks in their syscall_arch.h files, not the raw kernel type. a subsequent commit will fix this.
2019-07-01add new syscall numbers from linux v5.1Szabolcs Nagy-0/+24
syscall numbers are now synced up across targets (starting from 403 the numbers are the same on all targets other than an arch specific offset) IPC syscalls sem*, shm*, msg* got added where they were missing (except for semop: only semtimedop got added), the new semctl, shmctl, msgctl imply IPC_64, see linux commit 0d6040d4681735dfc47565de288525de405a5c99 arch: add split IPC system calls where needed new 64bit time_t syscall variants got added on 32bit targets, see linux commit 48166e6ea47d23984f0b481ca199250e1ce0730a y2038: add 64-bit time_t syscalls to all 32-bit architectures new async io syscalls got added, see linux commit 2b188cc1bb857a9d4701ae59aa7768b5124e262e Add io_uring IO interface linux commit edafccee56ff31678a091ddb7219aba9b28bc3cb io_uring: add support for pre-mapped user IO buffers a new syscall got added that uses the fd of /proc/<pid> as a stable handle for processes: allows sending signals without pid reuse issues, intended to eventually replace rt_sigqueueinfo, kill, tgkill and rt_tgsigqueueinfo, see linux commit 3eb39f47934f9d5a3027fe00d906a45fe3a15fad signal: add pidfd_send_signal() syscall on some targets (arm, m68k, s390x, sh) some previously missing syscall numbers got added as well.
2019-05-05fix passing of 64-bit syscall arguments on microblazeRich Felker-1/+1
this has been wrong since the beginning of the microblaze port: the syscall ABI for microblaze does not align 64-bit arguments on even register boundaries. commit 788d5e24ca19c6291cebd8d1ad5b5ed6abf42665 exposed the problem by introducing references to a nonexistent __syscall7. the ABI is not documented well anywhere, but I was able to confirm against both strace source and glibc source that microblaze is not using the alignment. per the syscall(2) man page, posix_fadvise, ftruncate, pread, pwrite, readahead, sync_file_range, and truncate were all affected and either did not work at all, or only worked by chance, e.g. when the affected argument slots were all zero.
2019-04-10remove cruft for supposedly-buggy clang from or1k & microblaze syscall_archRich Felker-9/+0
it was never demonstrated to me that this workaround was needed, and seems likely that, if there ever was any clang version for which it was needed, it's old enough to be unusably buggy in other ways. if it turns out some compilers actually can't do the register allocation right, we'll need to replace this with inline shuffling code, since the external __syscall dependency is being removed.
2018-12-09add io_pgetevents and rseq syscall numbers from linux v4.18Szabolcs Nagy-0/+2
io_pgetevents is new in linux commit 7a074e96dee62586c935c80cecd931431bfdd0be rseq is new in linux commit d7822b1e24f2df5df98c76f0e94a5416349ff759
2018-10-16make thread-pointer-loading asm non-volatileRich Felker-1/+1
this will allow the compiler to cache and reuse the result, meaning we no longer have to take care not to load it more than once for the sake of archs where the load may be expensive. depends on commit 1c84c99913bf1cd47b866ed31e665848a0da84a2 for correctness, since otherwise the compiler could hoist loads during stage 3 of dynamic linking before the initial thread-pointer setup.
2018-06-20work around broken kernel struct ipc_perm on some big endian archsRich Felker-0/+2
the mode member of struct ipc_perm is specified by POSIX to have type mode_t, which is uniformly defined as unsigned int. however, Linux defines it with type __kernel_mode_t, and defines __kernel_mode_t as unsigned short on some archs. since there is a subsequent padding field, treating it as a 32-bit unsigned int works on little endian archs, but the order is backwards on big endian archs with the erroneous definition. since multiple archs are affected, remedy the situation with fixup code in the affected functions (shmctl, semctl, and msgctl) rather than repeating the same shims in syscall_arch.h for every affected arch.
2017-11-05microblaze: add statx syscall from linux v4.13Szabolcs Nagy-0/+1
statx number is allocated for microblaze in linux commit f5ef419630e85e80284cd0256cb5a13a66bbd6c5
2017-11-05add microblaze syscall numbers from linux v4.10Szabolcs Nagy-0/+6
missing syscalls got allocated on microblaze.
2017-09-06make syscall.h consistent with linuxSzabolcs Nagy-4/+4
most of the found naming differences don't matter to musl, because internally it unifies the syscall names that vary across targets, but for external code the names should match the kernel uapi. aarch64: __NR_fstatat is called __NR_newfstatat in linux. __NR_or1k_atomic got mistakenly copied from or1k. arm: __NR_arm_sync_file_range is an alias for __NR_sync_file_range2 __NR_fadvise64_64 is called __NR_arm_fadvise64_64 in linux, the old non-arm name is kept too, it should not cause issues. (powerpc has similar nonstandard fadvise and it uses the normal name.) i386: __NR_madvise1 was removed from linux in commit 303395ac3bf3e2cb488435537d416bc840438fcb 2011-11-11 microblaze: __NR_fadvise, __NR_fstatat, __NR_pread, __NR_pwrite had different name in linux. mips: __NR_fadvise, __NR_fstatat, __NR_pread, __NR_pwrite, __NR_select had different name in linux. mipsn32: __NR_fstatat is called __NR_newfstatat in linux. or1k: __NR__llseek is called __NR_llseek in linux. the old name is kept too because that's the name musl uses internally. powerpc: __NR_{get,set}res{gid,uid}32 was never present in powerpc linux. __NR_timerfd was briefly defined in linux but then got renamed.
2017-06-21fix omission of microblaze user.h definitionsRich Felker-1/+25
2016-08-30microblaze: add syscall numbers from linux v4.7Szabolcs Nagy-0/+3
userfaultfd, membarrier and mlock2 syscalls got wired up in linux commit fbce3befd60d40639bf3c6b60f7477b2f988f92d
2016-07-03make brace placement in public header typedef'd structs consistentRich Felker-2/+1
commit befa5866ee30d09c0c96e88af2eabff5911342ea performed this change for struct definitions that did not also involve typedef, but omitted the latter.
2016-07-03make brace placement in public header struct definitions consistentRich Felker-2/+1
placing the opening brace on the same line as the struct keyword/tag is the style I prefer and seems to be the prevailing practice in more recent additions. these changes were generated by the command: find include/ arch/*/bits -name '*.h' \ -exec sed -i '/^struct [^;{]*$/{N;s/\n/ /;}' {} + and subsequently checked by hand to ensure that the regex did not pick up any false positives.
2016-05-12deduplicate __NR_* and SYS_* syscall number definitionsBobby Bingham-388/+0
2016-03-18deduplicate bits/mman.hSzabolcs Nagy-59/+0
currently five targets use the same mman.h constants and the rest share most constants too, so move them to sys/mman.h before the bits/mman.h include where the differences can be corrected by redefinition of the macros. this fixes two minor bugs: POSIX_MADV_DONTNEED was wrong on most targets (it should be the same as MADV_DONTNEED), and sh defined the x86-only MAP_32BIT mmap flag.
2016-01-27deduplicate the bulk of the arch bits headersRich Felker-644/+0
all bits headers that were identical for a number of 'clean' archs are moved to the new arch/generic tree. in addition, a few headers that differed only cosmetically from the new generic version are removed. additional deduplication may be possible in mman.h and in several headers (limits.h, posix.h, stdint.h) that mostly depend on whether the arch is 32- or 64-bit, but they are left alone for now because greater gains are likely possible with more invasive changes to header logic, which is beyond the scope of this commit.
2016-01-26add MCL_ONFAULT and MLOCK_ONFAULT mlockall and mlock2 flagsSzabolcs Nagy-0/+1
they lock faulted pages into memory (useful when a small part of a large mapped file needs efficient access), new in linux v4.4, commit b0f205c2a3082dd9081f9a94e50658c5fa906ff1 MLOCK_* is not in the POSIX reserved namespace for sys/mman.h
2016-01-21refactor internal atomic.hRich Felker-143/+53
rather than having each arch provide its own atomic.h, there is a new shared atomic.h in src/internal which pulls arch-specific definitions from arc/$(ARCH)/atomic_arch.h. the latter can be extremely minimal, defining only a_cas or new ll/sc type primitives which the shared atomic.h will use to construct everything else. this commit avoids making heavy changes to the individual archs' atomic implementations. definitions which are identical or near-identical to what the new shared atomic.h would produce have been removed, but otherwise the changes made are just hooking up the arch-specific files to the new infrastructure. major changes to take advantage of the new system will come in subsequent commits.
2015-11-02properly access mcontext_t program counter in cancellation handlerRich Felker-1/+1
using the actual mcontext_t definition rather than an overlaid pointer array both improves correctness/readability and eliminates some ugly hacks for archs with 64-bit registers bit 32-bit program counter. also fix UB due to comparison of pointers not in a common array object.
2015-09-17new dlstart stage-2 chaining for microblazeRich Felker-0/+7
2015-05-22add .text section directive to all crt_arch.h files missing itRich Felker-0/+1
i386 and x86_64 versions already had the .text directive; other archs did not. normally, top-level (file scope) __asm__ starts in the .text section anyway, but problems were reported with some versions of clang, and it seems preferable to set it explicitly anyway, at least for the sake of consistency between archs.
2015-04-30fix __syscall declaration with wrong visibility in syscall_arch.hSzabolcs Nagy-2/+0
remove __syscall declaration where it is not needed (aarch64, arm, microblaze, or1k) and add the hidden attribute where it is (mips).
2015-04-17add execveat syscall number to microblazeSzabolcs Nagy-0/+2
syscall number was reserved in linux v4.0, kernel commit add4b1b02da7e7ec35c34dd04d351ac53f3f0dd8
2015-04-13dynamic linker bootstrap overhaulRich Felker-49/+25
this overhaul further reduces the amount of arch-specific code needed by the dynamic linker and removes a number of assumptions, including: - that symbolic function references inside libc are bound at link time via the linker option -Bsymbolic-functions. - that libc functions used by the dynamic linker do not require access to data symbols. - that static/internal function calls and data accesses can be made without performing any relocations, or that arch-specific startup code handled any such relocations needed. removing these assumptions paves the way for allowing itself to be built with stack protector (among other things), and is achieved by a three-stage bootstrap process: 1. relative relocations are processed with a flat function. 2. symbolic relocations are processed with no external calls/data. 3. main program and dependency libs are processed with a fully-functional libc/ldso. reduction in arch-specific code is achived through the following: - crt_arch.h, used for generating crt1.o, now provides the entry point for the dynamic linker too. - asm is no longer responsible for skipping the beginning of argv[] when ldso is invoked as a command. - the functionality previously provided by __reloc_self for heavily GOT-dependent RISC archs is now the arch-agnostic stage-1. - arch-specific relocation type codes are mapped directly as macros rather than via an inline translation function/switch statement.
2015-04-01move O_PATH definition back to arch bitsRich Felker-0/+1
while it's the same for all presently supported archs, it differs at least on sparc, and conceptually it's no less arch-specific than the other O_* macros. O_SEARCH and O_EXEC are still defined in terms of O_PATH in the main fcntl.h.
2015-03-18fix MINSIGSTKSZ values for archs with large signal contextsRich Felker-0/+5
the previous values (2k min and 8k default) were too small for some archs. aarch64 reserves 4k in the signal context for future extensions and requires about 4.5k total, and powerpc reportedly uses over 2k. the new minimums are chosen to fit the saved context and also allow a minimal signal handler to run. since the default (SIGSTKSZ) has always been 6k larger than the minimum, it is also increased to maintain the 6k usable by the signal handler. this happens to be able to store one pathname buffer and should be sufficient for calling any function in libc that doesn't involve conversion between floating point and decimal representations. x86 (both 32-bit and 64-bit variants) may also need a larger minimum (around 2.5k) in the future to support avx-512, but the values on these archs are left alone for now pending further analysis. the value for PTHREAD_STACK_MIN is not increased to match MINSIGSTKSZ at this time. this is so as not to preclude applications from using extremely small thread stacks when they know they will not be handling signals. unfortunately cancellation and multi-threaded set*id() use signals as an implementation detail and therefore require a stack large enough for a signal context, so applications which use extremely small thread stacks may still need to avoid using these features.
2015-03-07fix FLT_ROUNDS to reflect the current rounding modeSzabolcs Nagy-1/+0
Implemented as a wrapper around fegetround introducing a new function to the ABI: __flt_rounds. (fegetround cannot be used directly from float.h)
2015-03-04fix POLLWRNORM and POLLWRBAND on mipsTrutz Behn-0/+0
these macros have the same distinct definition on blackfin, frv, m68k, mips, sparc and xtensa kernels. POLLMSG and POLLRDHUP additionally differ on sparc.
2015-03-03make all objects used with atomic operations volatileRich Felker-7/+7
the memory model we use internally for atomics permits plain loads of values which may be subject to concurrent modification without requiring that a special load function be used. since a compiler is free to make transformations that alter the number of loads or the way in which loads are performed, the compiler is theoretically free to break this usage. the most obvious concern is with atomic cas constructs: something of the form tmp=*p;a_cas(p,tmp,f(tmp)); could be transformed to a_cas(p,*p,f(*p)); where the latter is intended to show multiple loads of *p whose resulting values might fail to be equal; this would break the atomicity of the whole operation. but even more fundamental breakage is possible. with the changes being made now, objects that may be modified by atomics are modeled as volatile, and the atomic operations performed on them by other threads are modeled as asynchronous stores by hardware which happens to be acting on the request of another thread. such modeling of course does not itself address memory synchronization between cores/cpus, but that aspect was already handled. this all seems less than ideal, but it's the best we can do without mandating a C11 compiler and using the C11 model for atomics. in the case of pthread_once_t, the ABI type of the underlying object is not volatile-qualified. so we are assuming that accessing the object through a volatile-qualified lvalue via casts yields volatile access semantics. the language of the C standard is somewhat unclear on this matter, but this is an assumption the linux kernel also makes, and seems to be the correct interpretation of the standard.