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this may need further revision in the future, since POSIX is rather
unclear on the requirements, and is designed around the assumption of
POSIX TZ specifiers which are not sufficiently powerful to represent
real-world timezones (this is why zoneinfo support was added).
the basic issue is that strftime gets the string and numeric offset
for the timezone from the extra fields in struct tm, which are
initialized when calling localtime/gmtime/etc. however, a conforming
application might have created its own struct tm without initializing
these fields, in which case using __tm_zone (a pointer) could crash.
other zoneinfo-based implementations simply check for a null pointer,
but otherwise can still crash of the field contains junk.
simply ignoring __tm_zone and using tzname would "work" but would
give incorrect results in time zones with more complex rules. I feel
like this would lower the quality of implementation.
instead, simply validate __tm_zone: unless it points to one of the
zone name strings managed by the timezone system, assume it's invalid.
this commit also fixes several other minor bugs with formatting:
tm_isdst being negative is required to suppress printing of the zone
formats, and %z was using the wrong format specifiers since the type
of val was changed, resulting in bogus output.
POSIX mandates EOVERFLOW for this condition.
this commit has two major user-visible parts: zoneinfo-format time
zones are now supported, and overflow handling is intended to be
complete in the sense that all functions return a correct result if
and only if the result fits in the destination type, and otherwise
return an error. also, some noticable bugs in the way DST detection
and normalization worked have been fixed, and performance may be
better than before, but it has not been tested.
to deal with the fact that the public headers may be used with pre-c99
compilers, __restrict is used in place of restrict, and defined
appropriately for any supported compiler. we also avoid the form
[restrict] since older versions of gcc rejected it due to a bug in the
original c99 standard, and instead use the form *restrict.