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commit 54ca677983d47529bab8752315ac1a2b49888870 inadvertently
introduced bitwise and where logical and was intended. since the
right-hand operand is always 0 or -1 whenever the left-hand operand is
nonzero, the behavior happened to be equivalent.
priority inheritance is a feature to mitigate priority inversion
situations, where a execution of a medium-priority thread can
unboundedly block forward progress of a high-priority thread when a
lock it needs is held by a low-priority thread.
the natural way to do priority inheritance would be with a simple
futex flag to donate the calling thread's priority to a target thread
while it waits on the futex. unfortunately, linux does not offer such
an interface, but instead insists on implementing the whole locking
protocol in kernelspace with special futex commands that exist solely
for the purpose of doing PI mutexes. this would require the entire
"trylock" logic to be duplicated in the timedlock code path for PI
mutexes, since, once the previous lock holder releases the lock and
the futex call returns, the lock is already held by the caller.
obviously such code duplication is undesirable.
instead, I've made the PI timedlock success path set the mutex lock
count to -1, which can be thought of as "not yet complete", since a
lock count of 0 is "locked, with no recursive references". a simple
branch in a non-hot path of pthread_mutex_trylock can then see and act
on this state, skipping past the code that would check and take the
lock to the same code path that runs after the lock is obtained for a
because we're forced to let the kernel perform the actual lock and
unlock operations whenever the mutex is contended, we have to patch
things up when it does the wrong thing:
1. the lock operation is not aware of whether the mutex is
error-checking, so it will always fail with EDEADLK rather than
2. the lock operation is not aware of whether the mutex is robust, so
it will successfully obtain mutexes in the owner-died state even if
they're non-robust, whereas this operation should deadlock.
3. the unlock operation always sets the lock value to zero, whereas
for robust mutexes, we want to set it to a special value indicating
that the mutex obtained after its owner died was unlocked without
marking it consistent, so that future operations all fail with
the first of these is easy to solve, just by performing a futex wait
on a dummy futex address to simulate deadlock or ETIMEDOUT as
appropriate. but problems 2 and 3 interact in a nasty way. to solve
problem 2, we need to back out the spurious success. but if waiters
are present -- which we can't just ignore, because even if we don't
want to wake them, the calling thread is incorrectly inheriting their
priorities -- this requires using the kernel's unlock operation, which
will zero the lock value, thereby losing the "owner died with lock
to solve these problems, we overload the mutex's waiters field, which
is unused for PI mutexes since they don't call the normal futex wait
functions, as an indicator that the PI mutex is permanently
non-lockable. originally I wanted to use the count field, but there is
one code path that needs to access this flag without synchronization:
trylock's CAS failure path needs to be able to decide whether to fail
with EBUSY or ENOTRECOVERABLE, the waiters field is already treated as
a relaxed-order atomic in our memory model, so this works out nicely.
there was no point in masking off the pshared bit when first loading
the type, since every subsequent access involves a mask anyway. not
masking it may avoid a subsequent load to check the pshared flag, and
it's just simpler.
commit 84d061d5a31c9c773e29e1e2b1ffe8cb9557bc58 wrongly moved the
access to the global next_key outside of the scope of the lock. the
error manifested as spurious failure to find an available key slot
under concurrent calls to pthread_key_create, since the stopping
condition could be met after only a small number of slots were
commit 2de29bc994029b903a366b8a4a9f8c3c3ee2be90 left behind one
reference to pthread_mutex_trylock. fixing this also improves code
generation due to the namespace-safe version being hidde.
the motivation for this change is twofold. first, it gets the fallback
logic out of the dynamic linker, improving code readability and
organization. second, it provides application code that wants to use
the membarrier syscall, which depends on preregistration of intent
before the process becomes multithreaded unless unbounded latency is
acceptable, with a symbol that, when linked, ensures that this
this is a prerequisite for factoring the membarrier fallback code into
a function that can be called from a context with the thread list
already locked or independently.
previously, dynamic loading of new libraries with thread-local storage
allocated the storage needed for all existing threads at load-time,
precluding late failure that can't be handled, but left installation
in existing threads to take place lazily on first access. this imposed
an additional memory access and branch on every dynamic tls access,
and imposed a requirement, which was not actually met, that the
dynamic tlsdesc asm functions preserve all call-clobbered registers
before calling C code to to install new dynamic tls on first access.
the x86[_64] versions of this code wrongly omitted saving and
restoring of fpu/vector registers, assuming the compiler would not
generate anything using them in the called C code. the arm and aarch64
versions saved known existing registers, but failed to be future-proof
against expansion of the register file.
now that we track live threads in a list, it's possible to install the
new dynamic tls for each thread at dlopen time. for the most part,
synchronization is not needed, because if a thread has not
synchronized with completion of the dlopen, there is no way it can
meaningfully request access to a slot past the end of the old dtv,
which remains valid for accessing slots which already existed.
however, it is necessary to ensure that, if a thread sees its new dtv
pointer, it sees correct pointers in each of the slots that existed
prior to the dlopen. my understanding is that, on most real-world
coherency architectures including all the ones we presently support, a
built-in consume order guarantees this; however, don't rely on that.
instead, the SYS_membarrier syscall is used to ensure that all threads
see the stores to the slots of their new dtv prior to the installation
of the new dtv. if it is not supported, the same is implemented in
userspace via signals, using the same mechanism as __synccall.
the __tls_get_addr function, variants, and dynamic tlsdesc asm
functions are all updated to remove the fallback paths for claiming
new dynamic tls, and are now all branch-free.
access to clear the entry in each thread's tsd array for the key being
deleted was not synchronized with __pthread_tsd_run_dtors. I probably
made this mistake from a mistaken belief that the thread list lock was
held during the latter, which of course is not possible since it
executes application code in a still-live-thread context.
while we're at it, expand the interval during which signals are
blocked to cover taking the write lock on key_lock, so that a signal
at an inopportune time doesn't block forward progress of readers.
commit 84d061d5a31c9c773e29e1e2b1ffe8cb9557bc58 inadvertently
introduced namespace violations by using the pthread-namespace rwlock
functions in pthread_key_create, which is in turn used for C11 tss.
fix that and possible future uses of rwlocks elsewhere.
with the availability of the thread list, there is no need to mark tsd
key slots dirty and clean them up only when a free slot can't be
found. instead, directly iterate threads and clear any value
associated with the key being deleted.
no synchronization is necessary for the clearing, since there is no
way the slot can be accessed without having synchronized with the
creation of a new key occupying the same slot, which is already
sequenced after and synchronized with the deletion of the old key.
the __synccall mechanism provides stop-the-world synchronous execution
of a callback in all threads of the process. it is used to implement
multi-threaded setuid/setgid operations, since Linux lacks them at the
kernel level, and for some other less-critical purposes.
this change eliminates dependency on /proc/self/task to determine the
set of live threads, which in addition to being an unwanted dependency
and a potential point of resource-exhaustion failure, turned out to be
inaccurate. test cases provided by Alexey Izbyshev showed that it
could fail to reflect newly created threads. due to how the
presignaling phase worked, this usually yielded a deadlock if hit, but
in the worst case it could also result in threads being silently
missed (allowed to continue running without executing the callback).
the hard problem here is unlinking threads from a list when they exit
without creating a window of inconsistency where the kernel task for a
thread still exists and is still executing instructions in userspace,
but is not reflected in the list. the magic solution here is getting
rid of per-thread exit futex addresses (set_tid_address), and instead
using the exit futex to unlock the global thread list.
since pthread_join can no longer see the thread enter a detach_state
of EXITED (which depended on the exit futex address pointing to the
detach_state), it must now observe the unlocking of the thread list
lock before it can unmap the joined thread and return. it doesn't
actually have to take the lock. for this, a __tl_sync primitive is
offered, with a signature that will allow it to be enhanced for quick
return even under contention on the lock, if needed. for now, the
exiting thread always performs a futex wake on its detach_state. a
future change could optimize this out except when there is already a
initial/dynamic variants of detached state no longer need to be
tracked separately, since the futex address is always set to the
global list lock, not a thread-local address that could become invalid
on detached thread exit. all detached threads, however, must perform a
second sigprocmask syscall to block implementation-internal signals,
since locking the thread list with them already blocked is not
the arch-independent C version of __unmapself no longer needs to take
a lock or setup its own futex address to release the lock, since it
must necessarily be called with the thread list lock already held,
guaranteeing exclusive access to the temporary stack.
changes to libc.threads_minus_1 no longer need to be atomic, since
they are guarded by the thread list lock. it is largely vestigial at
this point, and can be replaced with a cheaper boolean indicating
whether the process is multithreaded at some point in the future.
whether signals need to be blocked at thread start, and whether
unblocking is necessary in the entry point function, has historically
depended on intricacies of the cancellation design and on whether
there are scheduling operations to perform on the new thread before
its successful creation can be committed. future changes to track an
AS-safe list of live threads will require signals to be blocked
whenever changes are made to the list, so ...
prior to commits b8742f32602add243ee2ce74d804015463726899 and
40bae2d32fd6f3ffea437fa745ad38a1fe77b27e, a signal mask for the entry
function to restore was part of the pthread structure. it was removed
to trim down the size of the structure, which both saved a small
amount of stack space and improved code generation on archs where
small immediate displacements are less costly than arbitrary ones, by
limiting the range of offsets between the base of the thread
structure, its members, and the thread pointer. these commits moved
the saved mask to a special structure used only when special
scheduling was needed, in which case the pthread_create caller and new
thread had to synchronize with each other and could use this memory to
pass a mask.
this commit partially reverts the above two commits, but instead of
putting the mask back in the pthread structure, it moves all "start
argument" members out of the pthread structure, trimming it down
further, and puts them in a separate structure passed on the new
thread's stack. the code path for explicit scheduling of the new
thread is also changed to synchronize with the calling thread in such
a way to avoid spurious futex wakes.
in order to implement ENOTRECOVERABLE, the implementation has
traditionally used a bit of the mutex type field to indicate that it's
recovered after EOWNERDEAD and will go into ENOTRECOVERABLE state if
pthread_mutex_consistent is not called before unlocking. while it's
only the thread that holds the lock that needs access to this
information (except possibly for the sake of pthread_mutex_consistent
choosing between EINVAL and EPERM for erroneous calls), the change to
the type field is formally a data race with all other threads that
perform any operation on the mutex. no individual bits race, and no
write races are possible, so things are "okay" in some sense, but it's
still not good.
this patch moves the recovery/consistency state to the mutex
owner/lock field which is rightfully mutable. bit 30, the same bit the
kernel uses with a zero owner to indicate that the previous owner died
holding the lock, is now used with a nonzero owner to indicate that
the mutex is held but has not yet been marked consistent. note that
the kernel ABI also reserves bit 29 not to appear in any tid, so the
sentinel value we use for ENOTRECOVERABLE, 0x7fffffff, does not clash
with any tid plus bit 30.
commit 84d061d5a31c9c773e29e1e2b1ffe8cb9557bc58 attempted to do this
already, but omitted from pthread_key_create.c the weak definition of
__pthread_key_delete_synccall, so that the definition provided by
pthread_key_delete.c was always pulled in.
based on patch by Markus Wichmann, but with a weak alias rather than
weak reference for consistency/policy about dependence on tooling
this reverts commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1, which
was based on a mistaken reading of POSIX due to inconsistency between
the description (which requires return upon interruption by a signal)
and the errors list (which wrongly lists EINTR as "may fail").
since the previously-introduced behavior was a workaround for an old
kernel bug to ensure safety of correct programs that were not hardened
against the bug, an effort has been made to preserve it for programs
which do not use interrupting signal handlers. the stage for this was
set in commit a63c0104e496f7ba78b64be3cd299b41e8cd427f, which makes
the futex __timedwait backend suppress EINTR if it's seen when no
interrupting signal handlers have been installed.
based loosely on a patch submitted by Orivej Desh, but with
unnecessary additional changes removed.
the resolution of Austin Group issue #1132 changes the requirement to
fail so that it only applies when the set argument (new mask) is
non-null. this change was made for consistency with the description,
which specified "if set is a null pointer, the value of the argument
how is not significant".
prior to linux 2.6.22, futex wait could fail with EINTR even for
non-interrupting (SA_RESTART) signals. this was no problem provided
the caller simply restarted the wait, but sem_[timed]wait is required
by POSIX to return when interrupted by a signal. commit
a113434cd68ce30642c4995b1caadcd084be6f09 introduced this behavior, and
commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1 reverted it based on a
mistaken belief that it was not required. this belief stems from a bug
in the specification: the description requires the function to return
when interrupted, but the errors section marks EINTR as a "may fail"
condition rather than a "shall fail" one.
since there does seem to be significant value in the change made in
commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1, making it so that
programs that call sem_wait without checking for EINTR don't silently
make forward progress without obtaining the semaphore or treat it as a
fatal error and abort, add a behind-the-scenes mechanism in the
__timedwait backend to suppress EINTR in programs that have never
installed interrupting signal handlers, and have sigaction track and
report this state. this way the semaphore code is not cluttered by
workarounds and can be updated (to be done in next commit) to reflect
the high-level logic for conforming behavior.
these changes are based loosely on a patch by Markus Wichmann, with
the main changes being atomic update to flag object and moving the
workaround from sem_timedwait to the __timedwait futex backend.
as explained in commit 6ba5517a460c6c438f64d69464fdfc3269a4c91a, some
archs use an offset (typicaly -0x8000) with their DTPOFF relocations,
which __tls_get_addr needs to invert. on affected archs, which lack
direct support for large immediates, this can cost multiple extra
instructions in the hot path. instead, incorporate the DTP_OFFSET into
the DTV entries. this means they are no longer valid pointers, so
store them as an array of uintptr_t rather than void *; this also
makes it easier to access slot 0 as a valid slot count.
commit e75b16cf93ebbc1ce758d3ea6b2923e8b2457c68 left behind cruft in
two places, __reset_tls and __tls_get_new, from back when it was
possible to have uninitialized gap slots indicated by a null pointer
in the DTV. since the concept of null pointer is no longer meaningful
with an offset applied, remove this cruft.
presently there are no archs with both TLSDESC and nonzero DTP_OFFSET,
but the dynamic TLSDESC relocation code is also updated to apply an
inverted offset to its offset field, so that the offset DTV would not
impose a runtime cost in TLSDESC resolver functions.
limit to 8MB/1MB, repectively. since the defaults cannot be reduced
once increased, excessively large settings would lead to an
unrecoverably broken state. this change is in preparation to allow
defaults to be increased via program headers at the linker level.
creation of threads that really need larger sizes needs to be done
with an explicit attribute.
these are now declared in pthread_impl.h.
access to defaults should be protected against concurrent changes.
per POSIX, deletion of a key for which some threads still have values
stored is permitted, and newly created keys must initially hold the
null value in all threads. these properties were not met by our
implementation; if a key was deleted with values left and a new key
was created in the same slot, the old values were still visible.
moreover, due to lack of any synchronization in pthread_key_delete,
there was a TOCTOU race whereby a concurrent pthread_exit could
attempt to call a null destructor pointer for the newly orphaned
this commit introduces a solution based on __synccall, stopping the
world to zero out the values for deleted keys, but only does so lazily
when all key slots have been exhausted. pthread_key_delete is split
off into a separate translation unit so that static-linked programs
which only create keys but never delete them will not pull in the
a global rwlock is added to synchronize creation and deletion of keys
with dtor execution. since the dtor execution loop now has to release
and retake the lock around its call to each dtor, checks are made not
to call the nodtor dummy function for keys which lack a dtor.
on some archs, linux support for futex operations (including
robust_list processing) that depend on kernelspace CAS is conditional
on a runtime check. as of linux 4.18, this check fails unconditionally
on nommu archs that perform it, and spurious failure on powerpc64 was
observed but not explained. it's also possible that futex support is
omitted entirely, or that the kernel is older than 2.6.17. for most
futex ops, ENOSYS does not yield hard breakage; userspace will just
spin at 100% cpu load. but for robust mutexes, correct behavior
depends on the kernel functionality.
use the get_robust_list syscall to probe for support at the first call
to pthread_mutexattr_setrobust, and block creation of robust mutexes
with a reportable error if they can't be supported.
this further reduces the number of source files which need to include
libc.h and thereby be potentially exposed to libc global state and
this will also facilitate further improvements like adding an inline
fast-path, if we want to do so later.
libc.h was intended to be a header for access to global libc state and
related interfaces, but ended up included all over the place because
it was the way to get the weak_alias macro. most of the inclusions
removed here are places where weak_alias was needed. a few were
recently introduced for hidden. some go all the way back to when
libc.h defined CANCELPT_BEGIN and _END, and all (wrongly implemented)
cancellation points had to include it.
remaining spurious users are mostly callers of the LOCK/UNLOCK macros
and files that use the LFS64 macro to define the awful *64 aliases.
in a few places, new inclusion of libc.h is added because several
internal headers no longer implicitly include libc.h.
declarations for __lockfile and __unlockfile are moved from libc.h to
stdio_impl.h so that the latter does not need libc.h. putting them in
libc.h made no sense at all, since the macros in stdio_impl.h are
needed to use them correctly anyway.
the direct syscall or various thin and mostly-inline wrappers around
it are used instead internally. at some point a public futex function
should be added, but it's not yet clear what the signature should be,
and in the mean time this file is not useful.
this is a special case that does not need a declaration, because it's
not even a libc-internal interface between translation units. instead
it's a poor hack around compilers' inability to shrink-wrap critical
code paths. after vis.h was disabled, it became more of a
pessimization on many archs due to the extra layer of machinery to
support a call through the PLT, but now it should be efficient again.
commits leading up to this one have moved the vast majority of
libc-internal interface declarations to appropriate internal headers,
allowing them to be type-checked and setting the stage to limit their
visibility. the ones that have not yet been moved are mostly
namespace-protected aliases for standard/public interfaces, which
exist to facilitate implementing plain C functions in terms of POSIX
functionality, or C or POSIX functionality in terms of extensions that
are not standardized. some don't quite fit this description, but are
"internally public" interfacs between subsystems of libc.
rather than create a number of newly-named headers to declare these
functions, and having to add explicit include directives for them to
every source file where they're needed, I have introduced a method of
wrapping the corresponding public headers.
parallel to the public headers in $(srcdir)/include, we now have
wrappers in $(srcdir)/src/include that come earlier in the include
path order. they include the public header they're wrapping, then add
declarations for namespace-protected versions of the same interfaces
and any "internally public" interfaces for the subsystem they
along these lines, the wrapper for features.h is now responsible for
the definition of the hidden, weak, and weak_alias macros. this means
source files will no longer need to include any special headers to
access these features.
over time, it is my expectation that the scope of what is "internally
public" will expand, reducing the number of source files which need to
include *_impl.h and related headers down to those which are actually
implementing the corresponding subsystems, not just using them.
this is not a public interface, and does not even necessarily match
the syscall on all archs that have a syscall by that name.
on archs where it's implemented in C, no action on the source file is
needed; the hidden declaration in pthread_arch.h suffices.
these are not a public interface and are not intended to be callable
from anywhere but the public clone function or other places in libc.
it's already included in all places where these are needed, and aside
from __tls_get_addr, they're all implementation internals.
despite looking like undefined behavior, the affected code is correct
both before and after this patch. the pairs mtx_t and pthread_mutex_t,
and cnd_t and pthread_cond_t, are not mutually compatible within a
single translation unit (because they are distinct untagged aggregate
instances), but they are compatible with an object of either type from
another translation unit (6.2.7 ¶1), and therefore a given translation
unit can choose which one it wants to use.
in the interest of being able to move declarations out of source files
to headers that facilitate checking, use the pthread type names in
declaring the namespace-safe versions of the pthread functions and
cast the argument pointer types when calling them.
these exist for the sake of defining the corresponding weak public
aliases (for C11 and POSIX namespace conformance reasons). they are
not referenced by anything else in libc, so make them static.
policy is that all public functions which have a public declaration
should be defined in a context where that public declaration is
visible, to avoid preventable type mismatches.
an audit performed using GCC's -Wmissing-declarations turned up the
violations corrected here. in some cases the public header had not
been included; in others, a feature test macro needed to make the
declaration visible had been omitted.
in the case of gethostent and getnetent, the omission seems to have
been intentional, as a hack to admit a single stub definition for both
functions. this kind of hack is no longer acceptable; it's UB and
would not fly with LTO or advanced toolchains. the hack is undone to
make exposure of the declarations possible.
this cleans up what had become widespread direct inline use of "GNU C"
style attributes directly in the source, and lowers the barrier to
increased use of hidden visibility, which will be useful to recovering
some of the efficiency lost when the protected visibility hack was
dropped in commit dc2f368e565c37728b0d620380b849c3a1ddd78f, especially
on archs where the PLT ABI is costly.
__pthread_mutex_timedlock is used to implement c11 mutex functions,
and therefore cannot call pthread_mutex_trylock by name.
compiler cannot cache immutable fields of the mutex object across
external calls it can't see, much less across atomics.
avoid gratuitously setting up and tearing down the robust list pending
if __cp_cancel was reached via __syscall_cp, r12 will necessarily
still contain a GOT pointer (for libc.so or for the static-linked main
program) valid for entering __cancel. however, in the case of async
cancellation, r12 may contain any scratch value; it's not necessarily
even a valid GOT pointer for the code that was interrupted.
unlike in commit 0ec49dab6794166d67fae4764ce7fdea42ea6103 where the
corresponding issue was fixed for powerpc64, there is fundamentally no
way for fdpic code to recompute its GOT pointer. so a new mechanism is
introduced for cancel_handler to write a GOT register value into the
interrupted context on archs where it is needed.
entering the local entry point for __cancel from __cp_cancel is valid
if __cp_cancel was reached from __syscall_cp, since both are in libc
and share the same TOC pointer, but it is not valid if __cp_cancel was
reached when cancel_handler rewrote the program counter for
asynchronous cancellation of code outside libc.
to ensure __cancel is entered with a valid TOC pointer, recompute the
correct value in a PC-relative manner before jumping.
this is a POSIX requirement.
__aeabi_read_tp used to call c code, but that was incorrect as the
arm runtime abi specifies special pcs for this function: it is only
allowed to clobber r0, ip, lr and cpsr.
maintainer's note: the old code explicitly saved and restored all
general-purpose registers which are call-clobbered in the normal
calling convention, so it's unlikely that any real-world compilers
produced code that could break. however theoretically they could have
chosen to use floating point registers, in which case the caller's
values of those registers would be clobbered.
with async cancellation enabled, pthread_cancel(pthread_self())
deadlocked due to pthread_kill holding killlock which is needed by
this could be solved by making pthread_kill block signals around the
critical section, at least when the target thread is itself, but the
issue only arises for cancellation, and otherwise would just be
imposing unnecessary cost.
instead just have pthread_cancel explicitly check for async
self-cancellation and call pthread_exit(PTHREAD_CANCELED) directly
rather than going through the signal machinery.
commit 610c5a8524c3d6cd3ac5a5f1231422e7648a3791 changed the thread
pointer setup so tp points at the end of the pthread struct on arm,
but failed to update __aeabi_read_tp so it was off by 8.
this broke tls access in code that is compiled with -mtp=soft, which
is the default when target arch is pre armv6k or thumb1.
maintainer's note: no release versions are affected.
Call SYS_exit on return from fn in __clone. This is the expected
behavior of this function. Without this the child task will crash on
return from fn, since it will return to nowhere.
due to moved code, commit b8742f32602add243ee2ce74d804015463726899
inadvertently used the return value of __clone, rather than the return
value of SYS_sched_setscheduler in the new thread, to check whether it
needed to report failure. since a successful __clone returns the tid
of the new thread, which is never zero, this caused pthread_create
always to return with an invalid error number in the code path for
this regression was not present in any releases.
this fixes a major gap in the intended functionality of
pthread_setattr_default_np. if application/library code creating a
thread does not pass a null attribute pointer to pthread_create, but
sets up an attribute object to change other properties while leaving
the stack alone, the created thread will get a stack with size
DEFAULT_STACK_SIZE. this makes pthread_setattr_default_np useless for
working around stack overflow issues in such applications, and leaves
a major risk of regression if previously-working code switches from
using a null attribute pointer to an attribute object.
this change aligns the behavior more closely with the glibc
pthread_setattr_default_np functionality too, albeit via a different
mechanism. glibc encodes "default" specially in the attribute object
and reads the actual default at thread creation time. with this
commit, we now copy the current default into the attribute object at
pthread_attr_init time, so that applications that query the properties
of the attribute object will see the right values.