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(cherry picked from commit 380857bf21bcffbbee2fe8ab52feadf39366d7ec)
these functions need to be fast when the init routine has already run,
since they may be called very often from code which depends on global
initialization having taken place. as such, a fast path bypassing
atomic cas on the once control object was used to avoid heavy memory
contention. however, on archs with weakly ordered memory, the fast
path failed to ensure that the caller actually observes the side
effects of the init routine.
preliminary performance testing showed that simply removing the fast
path was not practical; a performance drop of roughly 85x was observed
with 20 threads hammering the same once control on a 24-core machine.
so the new explicit barrier operation from atomic.h is used to retain
the fast path while ensuring memory visibility.
performance may be reduced on some archs where the barrier actually
makes a difference, but the previous behavior was unsafe and incorrect
on these archs. future improvements to the implementation of a_barrier
should reduce the impact.
(cherry picked from commit df37d3960abec482e17fad2274a99b790f6cc08b)
(edited not to depend on a_barrier, which is not available in 1.0.x)
the subsequent code in pthread_create and the code which copies TLS
initialization images to the new thread's TLS space assume that the
memory provided to them is zero-initialized, which is true when it's
obtained by pthread_create using mmap. however, when the caller
provides a stack using pthread_attr_setstack, pthread_create cannot
make any assumptions about the contents. simply zero-filling the
relevant memory in this case is the simplest and safest fix.
(cherry picked from commit a6293285e930dbdb0eff47e29b513ca22537b1a2)
previously we detected this bug in configure and issued advice for a
workaround, but this turned out not to work. since then gcc 4.9.0 has
appeared in several distributions, and now 4.9.1 has been released
without a fix despite this being a wrong code generation bug which is
supposed to be a release-blocker, per gcc policy.
since the scope of the bug seems to affect only data objects (rather
than functions) whose definitions are overridable, and there are only
a very small number of these in musl, I am just changing them from
const to volatile for the time being. simply removing the const would
be sufficient to make gcc 4.9.1 work (the non-const case was
inadvertently fixed as part of another change in gcc), and this would
also be sufficient with 4.9.0 if we forced -O0 on the affected files
or on the whole build. however it's cleaner to just remove all the
broken compiler detection and use volatile, which will ensure that
they are never constant-folded. the quality of a non-broken compiler's
output should not be affected except for the fact that these objects
are no longer const and thus possibly add a few bytes to data/bss.
this change can be reconsidered and possibly reverted at some point in
the future when the broken gcc versions are no longer relevant.
(cherry picked from commit a6adb2bcd8145353943377d6119c1d7a4242bae1)
this change is harmless and allows commit
a6adb2bcd8145353943377d6119c1d7a4242bae1 to apply without conflicts.
at the end of successful pthread_once, there was a race window during
which another thread calling pthread_once would momentarily change the
state back from 2 (finished) to 1 (in-progress). in this case, the
status was immediately changed back, but with no wake call, meaning
that waiters which arrived during this short window could block
forever. there are two possible fixes. one would be adding the wake to
the code path where it was missing. but it's better just to avoid
reverting the status at all, by using compare-and-swap instead of
(cherry picked from commit 0d0c2f40344640a2a6942dda156509593f51db5d)
linux, gcc, etc. all use "sh" as the name for the superh arch. there
was already some inconsistency internally in musl: the dynamic linker
was searching for "ld-musl-sh.path" as its path file despite its own
name being "ld-musl-superh.so.1". there was some sentiment in both
directions as to how to resolve the inconsistency, but overall "sh"
The architecture-specific assembly versions of clone did not set errno on
failure, which is inconsistent with glibc. __clone still returns the error
via its return value, and clone is now a wrapper that sets errno as needed.
The public clone has also been moved to src/linux, as it's not directly
related to the pthreads API.
__clone is called by pthread_create, which does not report errors via
errno. Though not strictly necessary, it's nice to avoid clobbering errno
this practice came from very early, before internal/syscall.h defined
macros that could accept pointer arguments directly and handle them
correctly. aside from being ugly and unnecessary, it looks like it
will be problematic when we add support for 32-bit ABIs on archs where
registers (and syscall arguments) are 64-bit, e.g. x32 and mips n32.
if a multithreaded program became non-multithreaded (i.e. all other
threads exited) while one thread held an internal lock, the remaining
thread would fail to release the lock. the the program then became
multithreaded again at a later time, any further attempts to obtain
the lock would deadlock permanently.
the underlying cause is that the value of libc.threads_minus_1 at
unlock time might not match the value at lock time. one solution would
be returning a flag to the caller indicating whether the lock was
taken and needs to be unlocked, but there is a simpler solution: using
the lock itself as such a flag.
note that this flag is not needed anyway for correctness; if the lock
is not held, the unlock code is harmless. however, the memory
synchronization properties associated with a_store are costly on some
archs, so it's best to avoid executing the unlock code when it is
this was resulting in crashes in posix_spawn on mips, and would have
affected applications calling clone too. since the prototype for
__clone has it as a variadic function, it may not assume that 16($sp)
is writable for use in making the syscall. instead, it needs to
allocate additional stack space, and then adjust the stack pointer
back in both of the code paths for the parent process/thread.
CLONE_PARENT is not necessary (CLONE_THREAD provides all the useful
parts of it) and Linux treats CLONE_PARENT as an error in certain
situations, without noticing that it would be a no-op due to
CLONE_THREAD. this error case prevents, for example, use of a
multi-threaded init process and certain usages with containers.
PAGE_SIZE was hardcoded to 4096, which is historically what most
systems use, but on several archs it is a kernel config parameter,
user space can only know it at execution time from the aux vector.
PAGE_SIZE and PAGESIZE are not defined on archs where page size is
a runtime parameter, applications should use sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE)
to query it. Internally libc code defines PAGE_SIZE to libc.page_size,
which is set to aux[AT_PAGESZ] in __init_libc and early in __dynlink
as well. (Note that libc.page_size can be accessed without GOT, ie.
before relocations are done)
Some fpathconf settings are hardcoded to 4096, these should be actually
queried from the filesystem using statfs.
unlike other archs, the mips version of clone was not doing anything
to align the stack pointer. this seems to have been the cause for some
SIGBUS crashes that were observed in posix_spawn.
switch to the new __block_all_sigs/__restore_sigs internal API to
clean up the code too.
this protects against deadlock from spurious signals (e.g. sent by
another process) arriving after the controlling thread releases the
other threads from the sync operation.
the head pointer was not being reset between calls to synccall, so any
use of this interface more than once would build the linked list
incorrectly, keeping the (now invalid) list nodes from the previous
the original motivation for this patch was that qemu (and possibly
other syscall emulators) nop out madvise, resulting in an infinite
loop. however, there is another benefit to this change: madvise may
actually undo an explicit madvise the application intended for its
stack, whereas the mremap operation is a true nop. the logic here is
that mremap must fail if it cannot resize the mapping in-place, and
the caller knows that it cannot resize in-place because it knows the
next page of virtual memory is already occupied.
this change is to get the right tags for C++ ABI matching. it should
have no other effects.
the address of the pointer to the sched param, rather than the
pointer, was being passed to the kernel.
fstat should not fail under normal circumstances, so this fix is
the address of the pointer, rather than the pointer, was being passed.
this was probably a copy-and-paste error from corresponding get code.
apparently these features have been in Linux for a while now, so it
makes sense to support them. the bit twiddling seems utterly illogical
and wasteful, especially the negation, but that's how the kernel folks
chose to encode pids/tids into the clock id.
there are several reasons for this change. one is getting rid of the
repetition of the syscall signature all over the place. another is
sharing the constant masks without costly GOT accesses in PIC.
the main motivation, however, is accurately representing whether we
want to block signals that might be handled by the application, or all
they have already blocked signals before decrementing the thread
count, so the code being removed is unreachable in the case where the
thread is no longer counted.
this was simply a case of saving the state in the wrong place.
the previous few commits ended up leaving the thread count and signal
mask wrong for atexit handlers and stdio cleanup.
now that blocking signals prevents any application code from running
while the last thread is exiting, the cas logic is no longer needed to
prevent decrementing below zero.
the thread count (1+libc.threads_minus_1) must always be greater than
or equal to the number of threads which could have application code
running, even in an async-signal-safe sense. there is at least one
dangerous race condition if this invariant fails to hold: dlopen could
allocate too little TLS for existing threads, and a signal handler
running in the exiting thread could claim the allocated TLS for itself
(via __tls_get_addr), leaving too little for the other threads it was
allocated for and thereby causing out-of-bounds access.
there may be other situations where it's dangerous for the thread
count to be too low, particularly in the case where only one thread
should be left, in which case locking may be omitted. however, all
such code paths seem to arise from undefined behavior, since
async-signal-unsafe functions are not permitted to be called from a
signal handler that interrupts pthread_exit (which is itself
this change may also simplify logic in __synccall and improve the
chances of making __synccall async-signal-safe.
this function is mainly (purely?) for obtaining stack address
information, but we also provide the detach state since it's easy to
the issue at hand is that many syscalls require as an argument the
kernel-ABI size of sigset_t, intended to allow the kernel to switch to
a larger sigset_t in the future. previously, each arch was defining
this size in syscall_arch.h, which was redundant with the definition
of _NSIG in bits/signal.h. as it's used in some not-quite-portable
application code as well, _NSIG is much more likely to be recognized
and understood immediately by someone reading the code, and it's also
shorter and less cluttered.
note that _NSIG is actually 65/129, not 64/128, but the division takes
care of throwing away the off-by-one part.
this bug seems to have been around a long time.
this bug was introduced when support for application-provided stacks
was originally added.
the main goal of these changes is to address the case where an
application provides a stack of size N, but TLS has size M that's a
significant portion of the size N (or even larger than N), thus giving
the application less stack space than it expected or no stack at all!
the new strategy pthread_create now uses is to only put TLS on the
application-provided stack if TLS is smaller than 1/8 of the stack
size or 2k, whichever is smaller. this ensures that the application
always has "close enough" to what it requested, and the threshold is
chosen heuristically to make sure "sane" amounts of TLS still end up
in the application-provided stack.
if TLS does not fit the above criteria, pthread_create uses mmap to
obtain space for TLS, but still uses the application-provided stack
for actual call frame stack. this is to avoid wasting memory, and for
the sake of supporting ugly hacks like garbage collection based on
assumptions that the implementation will use the provided stack range.
in order for the above heuristics to ever succeed, the amount of TLS
space wasted on POSIX TSD (pthread_key_create based) needed to be
reduced. otherwise, these changes would preclude any use of
pthread_create without mmap, which would have serious memory usage and
performance costs for applications trying to create huge numbers of
threads using pre-allocated stack space. the new value of
PTHREAD_KEYS_MAX is the minimum allowed by POSIX, 128. this should
still be plenty more than real-world applications need, especially now
that C11/gcc-style TLS is now supported in musl, and most apps and
libraries choose to use that instead of POSIX TSD when available.
at the same time, PTHREAD_STACK_MIN has been decreased. it was
originally set to PAGE_SIZE back when there was no support for TLS or
application-provided stacks, and requests smaller than a whole page
did not make sense. now, there are two good reasons to support
requests smaller than a page: (1) applications could provide
pre-allocated stacks smaller than a page, and (2) with smaller stack
sizes, stack+TLS+TSD can all fit in one page, making it possible for
applications which need huge numbers of threads with minimal stack
needs to allocate exactly one page per thread. the new value of
PTHREAD_STACK_MIN, 2k, is aligned with the minimum size for
this should generate faster and smaller code, especially with inline
syscalls. the conditional with cnt is ugly, but thankfully cnt is
always a constant anyway so it gets evaluated at compile time. it may
be preferable to make separate __wake and __wakeall macros without a
priv flag is not used yet; private futex support still needs to be
done at some point in the future.
these should have little/no practical impact but they're needed for