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commit d6c855caa88ddb1ab6e24e23a14b1e7baf4ba9c7 caused this
"regression", though the behavior was undefined before, overlooking
that f->shend=0 was being used as a sentinel for "EOF" status (actual
EOF or hitting the scanf field width) of the stream helper (shgetc)
obviously the shgetc macro could be adjusted to check for a null
pointer in addition to the != comparison, but it's the hot path, and
adding extra code/branches to it begins to defeat the purpose.
so instead of setting shend to a null pointer to block further reads,
which no longer works, set it to the current position (rpos). this
makes the shgetc macro work with no change, but it breaks shunget,
which can no longer look at the value of shend to determine whether to
back up. Szabolcs Nagy suggested a solution which I'm using here:
setting shlim to a negative value is inexpensive to test at shunget
time, and automatically re-trips the cnt>=shlim stop condition in
__shgetc no matter what the original limit was.
the motivation for this change is twofold. first, it gets the fallback
logic out of the dynamic linker, improving code readability and
organization. second, it provides application code that wants to use
the membarrier syscall, which depends on preregistration of intent
before the process becomes multithreaded unless unbounded latency is
acceptable, with a symbol that, when linked, ensures that this
previously, dynamic loading of new libraries with thread-local storage
allocated the storage needed for all existing threads at load-time,
precluding late failure that can't be handled, but left installation
in existing threads to take place lazily on first access. this imposed
an additional memory access and branch on every dynamic tls access,
and imposed a requirement, which was not actually met, that the
dynamic tlsdesc asm functions preserve all call-clobbered registers
before calling C code to to install new dynamic tls on first access.
the x86[_64] versions of this code wrongly omitted saving and
restoring of fpu/vector registers, assuming the compiler would not
generate anything using them in the called C code. the arm and aarch64
versions saved known existing registers, but failed to be future-proof
against expansion of the register file.
now that we track live threads in a list, it's possible to install the
new dynamic tls for each thread at dlopen time. for the most part,
synchronization is not needed, because if a thread has not
synchronized with completion of the dlopen, there is no way it can
meaningfully request access to a slot past the end of the old dtv,
which remains valid for accessing slots which already existed.
however, it is necessary to ensure that, if a thread sees its new dtv
pointer, it sees correct pointers in each of the slots that existed
prior to the dlopen. my understanding is that, on most real-world
coherency architectures including all the ones we presently support, a
built-in consume order guarantees this; however, don't rely on that.
instead, the SYS_membarrier syscall is used to ensure that all threads
see the stores to the slots of their new dtv prior to the installation
of the new dtv. if it is not supported, the same is implemented in
userspace via signals, using the same mechanism as __synccall.
the __tls_get_addr function, variants, and dynamic tlsdesc asm
functions are all updated to remove the fallback paths for claiming
new dynamic tls, and are now all branch-free.
the __synccall mechanism provides stop-the-world synchronous execution
of a callback in all threads of the process. it is used to implement
multi-threaded setuid/setgid operations, since Linux lacks them at the
kernel level, and for some other less-critical purposes.
this change eliminates dependency on /proc/self/task to determine the
set of live threads, which in addition to being an unwanted dependency
and a potential point of resource-exhaustion failure, turned out to be
inaccurate. test cases provided by Alexey Izbyshev showed that it
could fail to reflect newly created threads. due to how the
presignaling phase worked, this usually yielded a deadlock if hit, but
in the worst case it could also result in threads being silently
missed (allowed to continue running without executing the callback).
the hard problem here is unlinking threads from a list when they exit
without creating a window of inconsistency where the kernel task for a
thread still exists and is still executing instructions in userspace,
but is not reflected in the list. the magic solution here is getting
rid of per-thread exit futex addresses (set_tid_address), and instead
using the exit futex to unlock the global thread list.
since pthread_join can no longer see the thread enter a detach_state
of EXITED (which depended on the exit futex address pointing to the
detach_state), it must now observe the unlocking of the thread list
lock before it can unmap the joined thread and return. it doesn't
actually have to take the lock. for this, a __tl_sync primitive is
offered, with a signature that will allow it to be enhanced for quick
return even under contention on the lock, if needed. for now, the
exiting thread always performs a futex wake on its detach_state. a
future change could optimize this out except when there is already a
initial/dynamic variants of detached state no longer need to be
tracked separately, since the futex address is always set to the
global list lock, not a thread-local address that could become invalid
on detached thread exit. all detached threads, however, must perform a
second sigprocmask syscall to block implementation-internal signals,
since locking the thread list with them already blocked is not
the arch-independent C version of __unmapself no longer needs to take
a lock or setup its own futex address to release the lock, since it
must necessarily be called with the thread list lock already held,
guaranteeing exclusive access to the temporary stack.
changes to libc.threads_minus_1 no longer need to be atomic, since
they are guarded by the thread list lock. it is largely vestigial at
this point, and can be replaced with a cheaper boolean indicating
whether the process is multithreaded at some point in the future.
whether signals need to be blocked at thread start, and whether
unblocking is necessary in the entry point function, has historically
depended on intricacies of the cancellation design and on whether
there are scheduling operations to perform on the new thread before
its successful creation can be committed. future changes to track an
AS-safe list of live threads will require signals to be blocked
whenever changes are made to the list, so ...
prior to commits b8742f32602add243ee2ce74d804015463726899 and
40bae2d32fd6f3ffea437fa745ad38a1fe77b27e, a signal mask for the entry
function to restore was part of the pthread structure. it was removed
to trim down the size of the structure, which both saved a small
amount of stack space and improved code generation on archs where
small immediate displacements are less costly than arbitrary ones, by
limiting the range of offsets between the base of the thread
structure, its members, and the thread pointer. these commits moved
the saved mask to a special structure used only when special
scheduling was needed, in which case the pthread_create caller and new
thread had to synchronize with each other and could use this memory to
pass a mask.
this commit partially reverts the above two commits, but instead of
putting the mask back in the pthread structure, it moves all "start
argument" members out of the pthread structure, trimming it down
further, and puts them in a separate structure passed on the new
thread's stack. the code path for explicit scheduling of the new
thread is also changed to synchronize with the calling thread in such
a way to avoid spurious futex wakes.
prior to linux 2.6.22, futex wait could fail with EINTR even for
non-interrupting (SA_RESTART) signals. this was no problem provided
the caller simply restarted the wait, but sem_[timed]wait is required
by POSIX to return when interrupted by a signal. commit
a113434cd68ce30642c4995b1caadcd084be6f09 introduced this behavior, and
commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1 reverted it based on a
mistaken belief that it was not required. this belief stems from a bug
in the specification: the description requires the function to return
when interrupted, but the errors section marks EINTR as a "may fail"
condition rather than a "shall fail" one.
since there does seem to be significant value in the change made in
commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1, making it so that
programs that call sem_wait without checking for EINTR don't silently
make forward progress without obtaining the semaphore or treat it as a
fatal error and abort, add a behind-the-scenes mechanism in the
__timedwait backend to suppress EINTR in programs that have never
installed interrupting signal handlers, and have sigaction track and
report this state. this way the semaphore code is not cluttered by
workarounds and can be updated (to be done in next commit) to reflect
the high-level logic for conforming behavior.
these changes are based loosely on a patch by Markus Wichmann, with
the main changes being atomic update to flag object and moving the
workaround from sem_timedwait to the __timedwait futex backend.
commit 63c188ec42e76ff768e81f6b65b11c68fc43351e missed making this
change when switching from atomics to locking for modification of the
global locale, leaving access to locale structures unnecessarily
burdened with the restrictions of volatile.
the volatile qualification was originally added in commit
introduce a new LOC_MAP_FAILED sentinel for errors, since null
pointers for a category's locale map indicate the C locale. at this
time, __get_locale does not fail, so there should be no functional
change by this commit.
the choice of signed char for lbf was a theoretically space-saving
hack that was not helping, and was unwantedly expensive. while
comparing bytes against a byte-sized member sounds easy, the trick
here was that the byte to be compared was unsigned while the lbf
member was signed, making it possible to set lbf negative to disable
line buffering. however, this imposed a requirement to promote both
operands, zero-extending one and sign-extending the other, in order to
to fix this, repurpose the waiters count slot (unused since commit
c21f750727515602a9e84f2a190ee8a0a2aeb2a1). while we're at it, switch
mode (orientation) from signed char to int as well. this makes no
semantic difference (its only possible values are -1, 0, and 1) but it
might help on archs where byte access is awkward.
to check whether flush due to line buffering is needed, the int-type
character argument must be truncated to unsigned char for comparison.
if the original value is subsequently passed to __overflow, it must be
preserved, adding to register pressure. since it doesn't matter,
truncate all uses so the original value is no longer live.
the internal putc_unlocked macro was wrongly returning a meaningless
boolean result rather than the written character or EOF.
bug was found by reading (very surprising) asm.
don't repeat definition in two places.
as explained in commit 6ba5517a460c6c438f64d69464fdfc3269a4c91a, some
archs use an offset (typicaly -0x8000) with their DTPOFF relocations,
which __tls_get_addr needs to invert. on affected archs, which lack
direct support for large immediates, this can cost multiple extra
instructions in the hot path. instead, incorporate the DTP_OFFSET into
the DTV entries. this means they are no longer valid pointers, so
store them as an array of uintptr_t rather than void *; this also
makes it easier to access slot 0 as a valid slot count.
commit e75b16cf93ebbc1ce758d3ea6b2923e8b2457c68 left behind cruft in
two places, __reset_tls and __tls_get_new, from back when it was
possible to have uninitialized gap slots indicated by a null pointer
in the DTV. since the concept of null pointer is no longer meaningful
with an offset applied, remove this cruft.
presently there are no archs with both TLSDESC and nonzero DTP_OFFSET,
but the dynamic TLSDESC relocation code is also updated to apply an
inverted offset to its offset field, so that the offset DTV would not
impose a runtime cost in TLSDESC resolver functions.
stack size default is increased from 80k to 128k. this coincides with
Linux's hard-coded default stack for the main thread (128k is
initially committed; growth beyond that up to ulimit is contingent on
additional allocation succeeding) and GNU ld's default PT_GNU_STACK
size for FDPIC, at least on sh.
guard size default is increased from 4k to 8k to reduce the risk of
guard page jumping on overflow, since use of just over 4k of stack is
common (PATH_MAX buffers, etc.).
limit to 8MB/1MB, repectively. since the defaults cannot be reduced
once increased, excessively large settings would lead to an
unrecoverably broken state. this change is in preparation to allow
defaults to be increased via program headers at the linker level.
creation of threads that really need larger sizes needs to be done
with an explicit attribute.
per POSIX, deletion of a key for which some threads still have values
stored is permitted, and newly created keys must initially hold the
null value in all threads. these properties were not met by our
implementation; if a key was deleted with values left and a new key
was created in the same slot, the old values were still visible.
moreover, due to lack of any synchronization in pthread_key_delete,
there was a TOCTOU race whereby a concurrent pthread_exit could
attempt to call a null destructor pointer for the newly orphaned
this commit introduces a solution based on __synccall, stopping the
world to zero out the values for deleted keys, but only does so lazily
when all key slots have been exhausted. pthread_key_delete is split
off into a separate translation unit so that static-linked programs
which only create keys but never delete them will not pull in the
a global rwlock is added to synchronize creation and deletion of keys
with dtor execution. since the dtor execution loop now has to release
and retake the lock around its call to each dtor, checks are made not
to call the nodtor dummy function for keys which lack a dtor.
morally, for null pointers a and b, a-b, a<b, and a>b should all be
defined as 0; however, C does not define any of them.
the stdio implementation makes heavy use of such pointer comparison
and subtraction for buffer logic, and also uses null pos/base/end
pointers to indicate that the FILE is not in the corresponding (read
or write) mode ready for accesses through the buffer.
all of the comparisons are fixed trivially by using != in place of the
relational operators, since the opposite relation (e.g. pos>end) is
logically impossible. the subtractions have been reviewed to check
that they are conditional the stream being in the appropriate reading-
or writing-through-buffer mode, with checks added where needed.
in fgets and getdelim, the checks added should improve performance for
unbuffered streams by avoiding a do-nothing call to memchr, and should
be negligible for buffered streams.
in order to produce FILE objects to pass to the intscan/floatscan
backends without any (prohibitively costly) extra buffering layer, the
strto* functions set the FILE's rend (read end) buffer pointer to an
invalid value at the end of the address space, or SIZE_MAX/2 past the
beginning of the string. this led to undefined behavior comparing and
subtracting the end pointer with the buffer position pointer (rpos).
the comparison issue is easily eliminated by using != instead of <.
however the subtractions require nontrivial changes:
previously, f->shcnt stored the count that would have been read if
consuming the whole buffer, which required an end pointer for the
buffer. the purpose for this was that it allowed reading it and adding
rpos-rend at any time to get the actual count so far, and required no
adjustment at the time of __shgetc (actual function call) since the
call would only happen when reaching the end of the buffer.
to get rid of the dependency on rend, instead offset shcnt by buf-rpos
(start of buffer) at the time of last __shlim/__shgetc call. this
makes for slightly more work in __shgetc the function, but for the
inline macro it's still just as easy to compute the current count.
since the scan helper interfaces used here are a big hack, comments
are added to document their contracts and what's going on with their
as originally published, the C99 syntax only allowed static index
parameter declarators when a gratuitous parameter name was included.
gcc 3, which some projects use for bootstrapping, is a supported C99
compiler, but does not have the fix to the standard incorporated, so
edit the affected declaration to conform to the earlier buggy C99
since commit dc2f368e565c37728b0d620380b849c3a1ddd78f this has been
disabled by default, but was left available in case users unhappy with
the resulting size or performance regressions wanted to try to make it
work. now that we make widespread use of hidden visibility for
internal interfaces, this no longer makes sense. if any costly calls
remain they can be fixed with hidden aliases.
this further reduces the number of source files which need to include
libc.h and thereby be potentially exposed to libc global state and
this will also facilitate further improvements like adding an inline
fast-path, if we want to do so later.
pthread_atfork.c does not actually include pthread_impl.h and has no
reason to, so it wasn't getting the declaration. move it to libc.h
which is already included by both fork.c and pthread_atfork.c. this
makes more sense anyway since the function has little to do with
pthreads anyway aside from the name.
the LFS64 macro was not self-documenting and barely saved any
characters. simply use weak_alias directly so that it's clear what's
being done, and doesn't depend on a header to provide a strange macro.
libc.h was intended to be a header for access to global libc state and
related interfaces, but ended up included all over the place because
it was the way to get the weak_alias macro. most of the inclusions
removed here are places where weak_alias was needed. a few were
recently introduced for hidden. some go all the way back to when
libc.h defined CANCELPT_BEGIN and _END, and all (wrongly implemented)
cancellation points had to include it.
remaining spurious users are mostly callers of the LOCK/UNLOCK macros
and files that use the LFS64 macro to define the awful *64 aliases.
in a few places, new inclusion of libc.h is added because several
internal headers no longer implicitly include libc.h.
declarations for __lockfile and __unlockfile are moved from libc.h to
stdio_impl.h so that the latter does not need libc.h. putting them in
libc.h made no sense at all, since the macros in stdio_impl.h are
needed to use them correctly anyway.
the direct syscall or various thin and mostly-inline wrappers around
it are used instead internally. at some point a public futex function
should be added, but it's not yet clear what the signature should be,
and in the mean time this file is not useful.
these were overlooked for various reasons in earlier stages.
these were overlooked in the declarations overhaul work because they
are not properly declared, and the current framework even allows their
declared types to vary by arch. at some point this should be cleaned
up, but I'm not sure what the right way would be.
this makes significant differences to codegen on archs with an
expensive PLT-calling ABI; on i386 and gcc 7.3 for example, the sin
and sinf functions no longer touch call-saved registers or the stack
except for pushing outgoing arguments. performance is likely improved
too, but no measurements were taken.
commits leading up to this one have moved the vast majority of
libc-internal interface declarations to appropriate internal headers,
allowing them to be type-checked and setting the stage to limit their
visibility. the ones that have not yet been moved are mostly
namespace-protected aliases for standard/public interfaces, which
exist to facilitate implementing plain C functions in terms of POSIX
functionality, or C or POSIX functionality in terms of extensions that
are not standardized. some don't quite fit this description, but are
"internally public" interfacs between subsystems of libc.
rather than create a number of newly-named headers to declare these
functions, and having to add explicit include directives for them to
every source file where they're needed, I have introduced a method of
wrapping the corresponding public headers.
parallel to the public headers in $(srcdir)/include, we now have
wrappers in $(srcdir)/src/include that come earlier in the include
path order. they include the public header they're wrapping, then add
declarations for namespace-protected versions of the same interfaces
and any "internally public" interfaces for the subsystem they
along these lines, the wrapper for features.h is now responsible for
the definition of the hidden, weak, and weak_alias macros. this means
source files will no longer need to include any special headers to
access these features.
over time, it is my expectation that the scope of what is "internally
public" will expand, reducing the number of source files which need to
include *_impl.h and related headers down to those which are actually
implementing the corresponding subsystems, not just using them.
it's not ideal, but the function is essentially an extended stdio
function specialized to getopt's needs. the only reason it exists is
avoiding pulling printf code into every program using getopt.
the malloc-implementation-private header is the only right place for
this, because, being in the reserved namespace, __memalign is not
interposable and thus not valid to use anywhere else. anything outside
of the malloc implementation must call an appropriate-namespace public
function (aligned_alloc or posix_memalign).
this is not a public interface, and does not even necessarily match
the syscall on all archs that have a syscall by that name.
on archs where it's implemented in C, no action on the source file is
needed; the hidden declaration in pthread_arch.h suffices.
these are not a public interface and are not intended to be callable
from anywhere but the public clone function or other places in libc.
this functions is glue for linking dependency logic.
it's already included in all places where these are needed, and aside
from __tls_get_addr, they're all implementation internals.
eliminate gratuitous glue function for reporting the version, which
was probably leftover from the old dynamic linker design which lacked
a clear barrier for when/how it could access global data. put the
declaration for the data object that replaces it in libc.h where it
can be type checked.
logically these belong to the intersection of the stdio and pthread
subsystems, and either place the declarations could go (stdio_impl.h
or pthread_impl.h) requires a forward declaration for one of the
syscall.h was chosen as the header to declare it, since its intended
usage is alongside syscalls as a fallback for operations the direct
syscall does not support.