path: root/src/internal/pthread_impl.h
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2019-02-22add membarrier syscall wrapper, refactor dynamic tls install to use itRich Felker-1/+1
the motivation for this change is twofold. first, it gets the fallback logic out of the dynamic linker, improving code readability and organization. second, it provides application code that wants to use the membarrier syscall, which depends on preregistration of intent before the process becomes multithreaded unless unbounded latency is acceptable, with a symbol that, when linked, ensures that this registration happens.
2019-02-18install dynamic tls synchronously at dlopen, streamline accessRich Felker-0/+1
previously, dynamic loading of new libraries with thread-local storage allocated the storage needed for all existing threads at load-time, precluding late failure that can't be handled, but left installation in existing threads to take place lazily on first access. this imposed an additional memory access and branch on every dynamic tls access, and imposed a requirement, which was not actually met, that the dynamic tlsdesc asm functions preserve all call-clobbered registers before calling C code to to install new dynamic tls on first access. the x86[_64] versions of this code wrongly omitted saving and restoring of fpu/vector registers, assuming the compiler would not generate anything using them in the called C code. the arm and aarch64 versions saved known existing registers, but failed to be future-proof against expansion of the register file. now that we track live threads in a list, it's possible to install the new dynamic tls for each thread at dlopen time. for the most part, synchronization is not needed, because if a thread has not synchronized with completion of the dlopen, there is no way it can meaningfully request access to a slot past the end of the old dtv, which remains valid for accessing slots which already existed. however, it is necessary to ensure that, if a thread sees its new dtv pointer, it sees correct pointers in each of the slots that existed prior to the dlopen. my understanding is that, on most real-world coherency architectures including all the ones we presently support, a built-in consume order guarantees this; however, don't rely on that. instead, the SYS_membarrier syscall is used to ensure that all threads see the stores to the slots of their new dtv prior to the installation of the new dtv. if it is not supported, the same is implemented in userspace via signals, using the same mechanism as __synccall. the __tls_get_addr function, variants, and dynamic tlsdesc asm functions are all updated to remove the fallback paths for claiming new dynamic tls, and are now all branch-free.
2019-02-16rewrite __synccall in terms of global thread listRich Felker-1/+0
the __synccall mechanism provides stop-the-world synchronous execution of a callback in all threads of the process. it is used to implement multi-threaded setuid/setgid operations, since Linux lacks them at the kernel level, and for some other less-critical purposes. this change eliminates dependency on /proc/self/task to determine the set of live threads, which in addition to being an unwanted dependency and a potential point of resource-exhaustion failure, turned out to be inaccurate. test cases provided by Alexey Izbyshev showed that it could fail to reflect newly created threads. due to how the presignaling phase worked, this usually yielded a deadlock if hit, but in the worst case it could also result in threads being silently missed (allowed to continue running without executing the callback).
2019-02-15track all live threads in an AS-safe, fully-consistent linked listRich Felker-4/+8
the hard problem here is unlinking threads from a list when they exit without creating a window of inconsistency where the kernel task for a thread still exists and is still executing instructions in userspace, but is not reflected in the list. the magic solution here is getting rid of per-thread exit futex addresses (set_tid_address), and instead using the exit futex to unlock the global thread list. since pthread_join can no longer see the thread enter a detach_state of EXITED (which depended on the exit futex address pointing to the detach_state), it must now observe the unlocking of the thread list lock before it can unmap the joined thread and return. it doesn't actually have to take the lock. for this, a __tl_sync primitive is offered, with a signature that will allow it to be enhanced for quick return even under contention on the lock, if needed. for now, the exiting thread always performs a futex wake on its detach_state. a future change could optimize this out except when there is already a joiner waiting. initial/dynamic variants of detached state no longer need to be tracked separately, since the futex address is always set to the global list lock, not a thread-local address that could become invalid on detached thread exit. all detached threads, however, must perform a second sigprocmask syscall to block implementation-internal signals, since locking the thread list with them already blocked is not permissible. the arch-independent C version of __unmapself no longer needs to take a lock or setup its own futex address to release the lock, since it must necessarily be called with the thread list lock already held, guaranteeing exclusive access to the temporary stack. changes to libc.threads_minus_1 no longer need to be atomic, since they are guarded by the thread list lock. it is largely vestigial at this point, and can be replaced with a cheaper boolean indicating whether the process is multithreaded at some point in the future.
2019-02-15always block signals for starting new threads, refactor start argsRich Felker-11/+0
whether signals need to be blocked at thread start, and whether unblocking is necessary in the entry point function, has historically depended on intricacies of the cancellation design and on whether there are scheduling operations to perform on the new thread before its successful creation can be committed. future changes to track an AS-safe list of live threads will require signals to be blocked whenever changes are made to the list, so ... prior to commits b8742f32602add243ee2ce74d804015463726899 and 40bae2d32fd6f3ffea437fa745ad38a1fe77b27e, a signal mask for the entry function to restore was part of the pthread structure. it was removed to trim down the size of the structure, which both saved a small amount of stack space and improved code generation on archs where small immediate displacements are less costly than arbitrary ones, by limiting the range of offsets between the base of the thread structure, its members, and the thread pointer. these commits moved the saved mask to a special structure used only when special scheduling was needed, in which case the pthread_create caller and new thread had to synchronize with each other and could use this memory to pass a mask. this commit partially reverts the above two commits, but instead of putting the mask back in the pthread structure, it moves all "start argument" members out of the pthread structure, trimming it down further, and puts them in a separate structure passed on the new thread's stack. the code path for explicit scheduling of the new thread is also changed to synchronize with the calling thread in such a way to avoid spurious futex wakes.
2018-12-18add __timedwait backend workaround for old kernels where futex EINTRsRich Felker-0/+1
prior to linux 2.6.22, futex wait could fail with EINTR even for non-interrupting (SA_RESTART) signals. this was no problem provided the caller simply restarted the wait, but sem_[timed]wait is required by POSIX to return when interrupted by a signal. commit a113434cd68ce30642c4995b1caadcd084be6f09 introduced this behavior, and commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1 reverted it based on a mistaken belief that it was not required. this belief stems from a bug in the specification: the description requires the function to return when interrupted, but the errors section marks EINTR as a "may fail" condition rather than a "shall fail" one. since there does seem to be significant value in the change made in commit c0ed5a201b2bdb6d1896064bec0020c9973db0a1, making it so that programs that call sem_wait without checking for EINTR don't silently make forward progress without obtaining the semaphore or treat it as a fatal error and abort, add a behind-the-scenes mechanism in the __timedwait backend to suppress EINTR in programs that have never installed interrupting signal handlers, and have sigaction track and report this state. this way the semaphore code is not cluttered by workarounds and can be updated (to be done in next commit) to reflect the high-level logic for conforming behavior. these changes are based loosely on a patch by Markus Wichmann, with the main changes being atomic update to flag object and moving the workaround from sem_timedwait to the __timedwait futex backend.
2018-10-12combine arch ABI's DTP_OFFSET into DTV pointersRich Felker-2/+3
as explained in commit 6ba5517a460c6c438f64d69464fdfc3269a4c91a, some archs use an offset (typicaly -0x8000) with their DTPOFF relocations, which __tls_get_addr needs to invert. on affected archs, which lack direct support for large immediates, this can cost multiple extra instructions in the hot path. instead, incorporate the DTP_OFFSET into the DTV entries. this means they are no longer valid pointers, so store them as an array of uintptr_t rather than void *; this also makes it easier to access slot 0 as a valid slot count. commit e75b16cf93ebbc1ce758d3ea6b2923e8b2457c68 left behind cruft in two places, __reset_tls and __tls_get_new, from back when it was possible to have uninitialized gap slots indicated by a null pointer in the DTV. since the concept of null pointer is no longer meaningful with an offset applied, remove this cruft. presently there are no archs with both TLSDESC and nonzero DTP_OFFSET, but the dynamic TLSDESC relocation code is also updated to apply an inverted offset to its offset field, so that the offset DTV would not impose a runtime cost in TLSDESC resolver functions.
2018-09-18increase default thread stack/guard sizeRich Felker-2/+2
stack size default is increased from 80k to 128k. this coincides with Linux's hard-coded default stack for the main thread (128k is initially committed; growth beyond that up to ulimit is contingent on additional allocation succeeding) and GNU ld's default PT_GNU_STACK size for FDPIC, at least on sh. guard size default is increased from 4k to 8k to reduce the risk of guard page jumping on overflow, since use of just over 4k of stack is common (PATH_MAX buffers, etc.).
2018-09-18limit the configurable default stack/guard size for threadsRich Felker-2/+5
limit to 8MB/1MB, repectively. since the defaults cannot be reduced once increased, excessively large settings would lead to an unrecoverably broken state. this change is in preparation to allow defaults to be increased via program headers at the linker level. creation of threads that really need larger sizes needs to be done with an explicit attribute.
2018-09-18fix deletion of pthread tsd keys that still have non-null values storedRich Felker-0/+3
per POSIX, deletion of a key for which some threads still have values stored is permitted, and newly created keys must initially hold the null value in all threads. these properties were not met by our implementation; if a key was deleted with values left and a new key was created in the same slot, the old values were still visible. moreover, due to lack of any synchronization in pthread_key_delete, there was a TOCTOU race whereby a concurrent pthread_exit could attempt to call a null destructor pointer for the newly orphaned value. this commit introduces a solution based on __synccall, stopping the world to zero out the values for deleted keys, but only does so lazily when all key slots have been exhausted. pthread_key_delete is split off into a separate translation unit so that static-linked programs which only create keys but never delete them will not pull in the __synccall machinery. a global rwlock is added to synchronize creation and deletion of keys with dtor execution. since the dtor execution loop now has to release and retake the lock around its call to each dtor, checks are made not to call the nodtor dummy function for keys which lack a dtor.
2018-09-12move misplaced __fork_handler declarationRich Felker-1/+0
pthread_atfork.c does not actually include pthread_impl.h and has no reason to, so it wasn't getting the declaration. move it to libc.h which is already included by both fork.c and pthread_atfork.c. this makes more sense anyway since the function has little to do with pthreads anyway aside from the name.
2018-09-12move additional pthread internal declarations to pthread_impl.h, hideRich Felker-0/+15
these were overlooked for various reasons in earlier stages.
2018-09-12apply hidden visibility to pthread internalsRich Felker-11/+11
2018-09-12overhaul internally-public declarations using wrapper headersRich Felker-8/+1
commits leading up to this one have moved the vast majority of libc-internal interface declarations to appropriate internal headers, allowing them to be type-checked and setting the stage to limit their visibility. the ones that have not yet been moved are mostly namespace-protected aliases for standard/public interfaces, which exist to facilitate implementing plain C functions in terms of POSIX functionality, or C or POSIX functionality in terms of extensions that are not standardized. some don't quite fit this description, but are "internally public" interfacs between subsystems of libc. rather than create a number of newly-named headers to declare these functions, and having to add explicit include directives for them to every source file where they're needed, I have introduced a method of wrapping the corresponding public headers. parallel to the public headers in $(srcdir)/include, we now have wrappers in $(srcdir)/src/include that come earlier in the include path order. they include the public header they're wrapping, then add declarations for namespace-protected versions of the same interfaces and any "internally public" interfaces for the subsystem they correspond to. along these lines, the wrapper for features.h is now responsible for the definition of the hidden, weak, and weak_alias macros. this means source files will no longer need to include any special headers to access these features. over time, it is my expectation that the scope of what is "internally public" will expand, reducing the number of source files which need to include *_impl.h and related headers down to those which are actually implementing the corresponding subsystems, not just using them.
2018-09-12make arch __set_thread_area backends hiddenRich Felker-1/+1
this is not a public interface, and does not even necessarily match the syscall on all archs that have a syscall by that name. on archs where it's implemented in C, no action on the source file is needed; the hidden declaration in pthread_arch.h suffices.
2018-09-12make arch __clone backends hiddenRich Felker-1/+1
these are not a public interface and are not intended to be callable from anywhere but the public clone function or other places in libc.
2018-09-12move declarations of tls setup/access functions to pthread_impl.hRich Felker-0/+6
it's already included in all places where these are needed, and aside from __tls_get_addr, they're all implementation internals.
2018-09-05remove leftover declarations for removed functions from pthread_impl.hRich Felker-4/+0
2018-06-26fix missing timeout argument to futex syscall in __futexwaitPatrick Oppenlander-2/+2
2018-05-09make linking of thread-start with explicit scheduling conditionalRich Felker-0/+8
the wrapper start function that performs scheduling operations is unreachable if pthread_attr_setinheritsched is never called, so move it there rather than the pthread_create source file, saving some code size for static-linked programs.
2018-05-09improve design of thread-start with explicit scheduling attributesRich Felker-2/+0
eliminate the awkward startlock mechanism and corresponding fields of the pthread structure that were only used at startup. instead of having pthread_create perform the scheduling operations and having the new thread wait for them to be completed, start the new thread with a wrapper start function that performs its own scheduling, sending the result code back via a futex. this way the new thread can use storage from the calling thread's stack rather than permanent fields in the pthread structure.
2018-05-07clean up and reduce size of internal pthread structureRich Felker-7/+9
over time the pthread structure has accumulated a lot of cruft taking up size. this commit removes unused fields and packs booleans and other small data more efficiently. changes which would also require changing code are not included at this time. non-volatile booleans are packed as unsigned char bitfield members. the canceldisable and cancelasync fields need volatile qualification due to how they're accessed from the cancellation signal handler and cancellable syscalls called from signal handlers. since volatile bitfield semantics are not clearly defined, discrete char objects are used instead. the pid field is completely removed; it has been unused since commit 83dc6eb087633abcf5608ad651d3b525ca2ec35e. the tid field's type is changed to int because its use is as a value in futexes, which are defined as plain int. it has no conceptual relationship to pid_t. also, its position is not ABI. startlock is reduced to a length-1 array. the second element was presumably intended as a waiter count, but it was never used and made no sense, since there is at most one waiter.
2018-05-05improve joinable/detached thread state handlingRich Felker-3/+9
previously, some accesses to the detached state (from pthread_join and pthread_getattr_np) were unsynchronized; they were harmless in programs with well-defined behavior, but ugly. other accesses (in pthread_exit and pthread_detach) were synchronized by a poorly named "exitlock", with an ad-hoc trylock operation on it open-coded in pthread_detach, whose only purpose was establishing protocol for which thread is responsible for deallocation of detached-thread resources. instead, use an atomic detach_state and unify it with the futex used to wait for thread exit. this eliminates 2 members from the pthread structure, gets rid of the hackish lock usage, and makes rigorous the trap added in commit 80bf5952551c002cf12d96deb145629765272db0 for catching attempts to join detached threads. it should also make attempt to detach an already-detached thread reliably trap.
2018-05-05improve pthread_exit synchronization with functions targeting tidRich Felker-1/+0
if the last thread exited via pthread_exit, the logic that marked it dead did not account for the possibility of it targeting itself via atexit handlers. for example, an atexit handler calling pthread_kill(pthread_self(), SIGKILL) would return success (previously, ESRCH) rather than causing termination via the signal. move the release of killlock after the determination is made whether the exiting thread is the last thread. in the case where it's not, move the release all the way to the end of the function. this way we can clear the tid rather than spending storage on a dedicated dead-flag. clearing the tid is also preferable in that it hardens against inadvertent use of the value after the thread has terminated but before it is joined.
2018-05-02use a dedicated futex object for pthread_join instead of tid fieldRich Felker-0/+1
the tid field in the pthread structure is not volatile, and really shouldn't be, so as not to limit the compiler's ability to reorder, merge, or split loads in code paths that may be relevant to performance (like controlling lock ownership). however, use of objects which are not volatile or atomic with futex wait is inherently broken, since the compiler is free to transform a single load into multiple loads, thereby using a different value for the controlling expression of the loop and the value passed to the futex syscall, leading the syscall to block instead of returning. reportedly glibc's pthread_join was actually affected by an equivalent issue in glibc on s390. add a separate, dedicated join_futex object for pthread_join to use.
2018-02-05document pthread structure ABI constraints in commentsRich Felker-0/+7
in the original submission of the patch that became commit 7c709f2d4f9872d1b445f760b0e68da89e256b9e, and in subsequent reading of it by others, it was not clear that the new member had to be inserted before canary_at_end, or that inserting it at that location was safe. add comments to document.
2018-02-03store pthread stack guard sizes for pthread_getattr_npWilliam Pitcock-0/+1
2018-01-09revise the definition of multiple basic locks in the codeJens Gustedt-2/+2
In all cases this is just a change from two volatile int to one.
2018-01-09new lock algorithm with state and congestion count in one atomic intJens Gustedt-0/+6
A variant of this new lock algorithm has been presented at SAC'16, see A full version of that paper is available at The main motivation of this is to improve on the safety of the basic lock implementation in musl. This is achieved by squeezing a lock flag and a congestion count (= threads inside the critical section) into a single int. Thereby an unlock operation does exactly one memory transfer (a_fetch_add) and never touches the value again, but still detects if a waiter has to be woken up. This is a fix of a use-after-free bug in pthread_detach that had temporarily been patched. Therefore this patch also reverts c1e27367a9b26b9baac0f37a12349fc36567c8b6 This is also the only place where internal knowledge of the lock algorithm is used. The main price for the improved safety is a little bit larger code. Under high congestion, the scheduling behavior will be different compared to the previous algorithm. In that case, a successful put-to-sleep may appear out of order compared to the arrival in the critical section.
2017-07-04unify the use of FUTEX_PRIVATEJens Gustedt-1/+1
The flag 1<<7 is used in several places for different purposes that are not always easy to distinguish. Mark those usages that correspond to the flag that is used by the kernel for futexes.
2017-01-13fix crashes in x32 __tls_get_addrrofl0r-0/+4
x32 has another gratuitous difference to all other archs: it passes an array of 64bit values to __tls_get_addr(). usually it is an array of size_t.
2016-12-06remove largish unused field from pthread structureRich Felker-1/+0
2016-11-08fix build regression on archs with variable page sizeRich Felker-1/+1
commit 31fb174dd295e50f7c5cf18d31fcfd5fe5a063b7 used DEFAULT_GUARD_SIZE from pthread_impl.h in a static initializer, breaking build on archs where its definition, PAGE_SIZE, is not a constant. instead, just define DEFAULT_GUARD_SIZE as 4096, the minimal page size on any arch we support. pthread_create rounds up to whole pages anyway, so defining it to 1 would also work, but a moderately meaningful value is nicer to programs that use pthread_attr_getguardsize on default-initialized attribute objects.
2015-06-25fix local-dynamic model TLS on mips and powerpcRich Felker-0/+4
the TLS ABI spec for mips, powerpc, and some other (presently unsupported) RISC archs has the return value of __tls_get_addr offset by +0x8000 and the result of DTPOFF relocations offset by -0x8000. I had previously assumed this part of the ABI was actually just an implementation detail, since the adjustments cancel out. however, when the local dynamic model is used for accessing TLS that's known to be in the same DSO, either of the following may happen: 1. the -0x8000 offset may already be applied to the argument structure passed to __tls_get_addr at ld time, without any opportunity for runtime relocations. 2. __tls_get_addr may be used with a zero offset argument to obtain a base address for the module's TLS, to which the caller then applies immediate offsets for individual objects accessed using the local dynamic model. since the immediate offsets have the -0x8000 adjustment applied to them, the base address they use needs to include the +0x8000 offset. it would be possible, but more complex, to store the pointers in the dtv[] array with the +0x8000 offset pre-applied, to avoid the runtime cost of adding 0x8000 on each call to __tls_get_addr. this change could be made later if measurements show that it would help.
2015-05-06fix stack protector crashes on x32 & powerpc due to misplaced TLS canaryRich Felker-1/+6
i386, x86_64, x32, and powerpc all use TLS for stack protector canary values in the default stack protector ABI, but the location only matched the ABI on i386 and x86_64. on x32, the expected location for the canary contained the tid, thus producing spurious mismatches (resulting in process termination) upon fork. on powerpc, the expected location contained the stdio_locks list head, so returning from a function after calling flockfile produced spurious mismatches. in both cases, the random canary was not present, and a predictable value was used instead, making the stack protector hardening much less effective than it should be. in the current fix, the thread structure has been expanded to have canary fields at all three possible locations, and archs that use a non-default location must define a macro in pthread_arch.h to choose which location is used. for most archs (which lack TLS canary ABI) the choice does not matter.
2015-04-18make dlerror state and message thread-local and dynamically-allocatedRich Felker-0/+2
this fixes truncation of error messages containing long pathnames or symbol names. the dlerror state was previously required by POSIX to be global. the resolution of bug 97 relaxed the requirements to allow thread-safe implementations of dlerror with thread-local state and message buffer.
2015-04-18add missing 'void' in prototypes of internal pthread functionsAlexander Monakov-6/+6
2015-04-10redesign and simplify vmlock systemRich Felker-0/+4
this global lock allows certain unlock-type primitives to exclude mmap/munmap operations which could change the identity of virtual addresses while references to them still exist. the original design mistakenly assumed mmap/munmap would conversely need to exclude the same operations which exclude mmap/munmap, so the vmlock was implemented as a sort of 'symmetric recursive rwlock'. this turned out to be unnecessary. commit 25d12fc0fc51f1fae0f85b4649a6463eb805aa8f already shortened the interval during which mmap/munmap held their side of the lock, but left the inappropriate lock design and some inefficiency. the new design uses a separate function, __vm_wait, which does not hold any lock itself and only waits for lock users which were already present when it was called to release the lock. this is sufficient because of the way operations that need to be excluded are sequenced: the "unlock-type" operations using the vmlock need only block mmap/munmap operations that are precipitated by (and thus sequenced after) the atomic-unlock they perform while holding the vmlock. this allows for a spectacular lack of synchronization in the __vm_wait function itself.
2015-03-11copy the dtv pointer to the end of the pthread struct for TLS_ABOVE_TP archsSzabolcs Nagy-0/+1
There are two main abi variants for thread local storage layout: (1) TLS is above the thread pointer at a fixed offset and the pthread struct is below that. So the end of the struct is at known offset. (2) the thread pointer points to the pthread struct and TLS starts below it. So the start of the struct is at known (zero) offset. Assembly code for the dynamic TLSDESC callback needs to access the dynamic thread vector (dtv) pointer which is currently at the front of the pthread struct. So in case of (1) the asm code needs to hard code the offset from the end of the struct which can easily break if the struct changes. This commit adds a copy of the dtv at the end of the struct. New members must not be added after dtv_copy, only before it. The size of the struct is increased a bit, but there is opportunity for size optimizations.
2015-03-03make all objects used with atomic operations volatileRich Felker-15/+15
the memory model we use internally for atomics permits plain loads of values which may be subject to concurrent modification without requiring that a special load function be used. since a compiler is free to make transformations that alter the number of loads or the way in which loads are performed, the compiler is theoretically free to break this usage. the most obvious concern is with atomic cas constructs: something of the form tmp=*p;a_cas(p,tmp,f(tmp)); could be transformed to a_cas(p,*p,f(*p)); where the latter is intended to show multiple loads of *p whose resulting values might fail to be equal; this would break the atomicity of the whole operation. but even more fundamental breakage is possible. with the changes being made now, objects that may be modified by atomics are modeled as volatile, and the atomic operations performed on them by other threads are modeled as asynchronous stores by hardware which happens to be acting on the request of another thread. such modeling of course does not itself address memory synchronization between cores/cpus, but that aspect was already handled. this all seems less than ideal, but it's the best we can do without mandating a C11 compiler and using the C11 model for atomics. in the case of pthread_once_t, the ABI type of the underlying object is not volatile-qualified. so we are assuming that accessing the object through a volatile-qualified lvalue via casts yields volatile access semantics. the language of the C standard is somewhat unclear on this matter, but this is an assumption the linux kernel also makes, and seems to be the correct interpretation of the standard.
2015-03-02factor cancellation cleanup push/pop out of futex __timedwait functionRich Felker-1/+2
previously, the __timedwait function was optionally a cancellation point depending on whether it was passed a pointer to a cleaup function and context to register. as of now, only one caller actually used such a cleanup function (and it may face removal soon); most callers either passed a null pointer to disable cancellation or a dummy cleanup function. now, __timedwait is never a cancellation point, and __timedwait_cp is the cancellable version. this makes the intent of the calling code more obvious and avoids ugly dummy functions and long argument lists.
2014-09-07add C11 thread creation and related thread functionsRich Felker-0/+2
based on patch by Jens Gustedt. the main difficulty here is handling the difference between start function signatures and thread return types for C11 threads versus POSIX threads. pointers to void are assumed to be able to represent faithfully all values of int. the function pointer for the thread start function is cast to an incorrect type for passing through pthread_create, but is cast back to its correct type before calling so that the behavior of the call is well-defined. changes to the existing threads implementation were kept minimal to reduce the risk of regressions, and duplication of code that carries implementation-specific assumptions was avoided for ease and safety of future maintenance.
2014-08-23fix false ownership of stdio FILEs due to tid reuseRich Felker-0/+1
this is analogous commit fffc5cda10e0c5c910b40f7be0d4fa4e15bb3f48 which fixed the corresponding issue for mutexes. the robust list can't be used here because the locks do not share a common layout with mutexes. at some point it may make sense to simply incorporate a mutex object into the FILE structure and use it, but that would be a much more invasive change, and it doesn't mesh well with the current design that uses a simpler code path for internal locking and pulls in the recursive-mutex-like code when the flockfile API is used explicitly.
2014-08-22fix fallback checks for kernels without private futex supportRich Felker-1/+1
for unknown syscall commands, the kernel produces ENOSYS, not EINVAL.
2014-08-17redesign cond var implementation to fix multiple issuesRich Felker-5/+4
the immediate issue that was reported by Jens Gustedt and needed to be fixed was corruption of the cv/mutex waiter states when switching to using a new mutex with the cv after all waiters were unblocked but before they finished returning from the wait function. self-synchronized destruction was also handled poorly and may have had race conditions. and the use of sequence numbers for waking waiters admitted a theoretical missed-wakeup if the sequence number wrapped through the full 32-bit space. the new implementation is largely documented in the comments in the source. the basic principle is to use linked lists initially attached to the cv object, but detachable on signal/broadcast, made up of nodes residing in automatic storage (stack) on the threads that are waiting. this eliminates the need for waiters to access the cv object after they are signaled, and allows us to limit wakeup to one waiter at a time during broadcasts even when futex requeue cannot be used. performance is also greatly improved, roughly double some tests. basically nothing is changed in the process-shared cond var case, where this implementation does not work, since processes do not have access to one another's local storage.
2014-08-17make pointers used in robust list volatileRich Felker-2/+2
when manipulating the robust list, the order of stores matters, because the code may be asynchronously interrupted by a fatal signal and the kernel will then access the robust list in what is essentially an async-signal context. previously, aliasing considerations made it seem unlikely that a compiler could reorder the stores, but proving that they could not be reordered incorrectly would have been extremely difficult. instead I've opted to make all the pointers used as part of the robust list, including those in the robust list head and in the individual mutexes, volatile. in addition, the format of the robust list has been changed to point back to the head at the end, rather than ending with a null pointer. this is to match the documented kernel robust list ABI. the null pointer, which was previously used, only worked because faults during access terminate the robust list processing.
2014-08-15make futex operations use private-futex mode when possibleRich Felker-2/+8
private-futex uses the virtual address of the futex int directly as the hash key rather than requiring the kernel to resolve the address to an underlying backing for the mapping in which it lies. for certain usage patterns it improves performance significantly. in many places, the code using futex __wake and __wait operations was already passing a correct fixed zero or nonzero flag for the priv argument, so no change was needed at the site of the call, only in the __wake and __wait functions themselves. in other places, especially where the process-shared attribute for a synchronization object was not previously tracked, additional new code is needed. for mutexes, the only place to store the flag is in the type field, so additional bit masking logic is needed for accessing the type. for non-process-shared condition variable broadcasts, the futex requeue operation is unable to requeue from a private futex to a process-shared one in the mutex structure, so requeue is simply disabled in this case by waking all waiters. for robust mutexes, the kernel always performs a non-private wake when the owner dies. in order not to introduce a behavioral regression in non-process-shared robust mutexes (when the owning thread dies), they are simply forced to be treated as process-shared for now, giving correct behavior at the expense of performance. this can be fixed by adding explicit code to pthread_exit to do the right thing for non-shared robust mutexes in userspace rather than relying on the kernel to do it, and will be fixed in this way later. since not all supported kernels have private futex support, the new code detects EINVAL from the futex syscall and falls back to making the call without the private flag. no attempt to cache the result is made; caching it and using the cached value efficiently is somewhat difficult, and not worth the complexity when the benefits would be seen only on ancient kernels which have numerous other limitations and bugs anyway.
2014-06-10simplify errno implementationRich Felker-1/+1
the motivation for the errno_ptr field in the thread structure, which this commit removes, was to allow the main thread's errno to keep its address when lazy thread pointer initialization was used. &errno was evaluated prior to setting up the thread pointer and stored in errno_ptr for the main thread; subsequently created threads would have errno_ptr pointing to their own errno_val in the thread structure. since lazy initialization was removed, there is no need for this extra level of indirection; __errno_location can simply return the address of the thread's errno_val directly. this does cause &errno to change, but the change happens before entry to application code, and thus is not observable.
2013-08-03fix multiple bugs in SIGEV_THREAD timersRich Felker-1/+1
1. the thread result field was reused for storing a kernel timer id, but would be overwritten if the application code exited or cancelled the thread. 2. low pointer values were used as the indicator that the timer id is a kernel timer id rather than a thread id. this is not portable, as mmap may return low pointers on some conditions. instead, use the fact that pointers must be aligned and kernel timer ids must be non-negative to map pointers into the negative integer space. 3. signals were not blocked until after the timer thread started, so a race condition could allow a signal handler to run in the timer thread when it's not supposed to exist. this is mainly problematic if the calling thread was the only thread where the signal was unblocked and the signal handler assumes it runs in that thread.
2013-04-26transition to using functions for internal signal blocking/restoringRich Felker-0/+4
there are several reasons for this change. one is getting rid of the repetition of the syscall signature all over the place. another is sharing the constant masks without costly GOT accesses in PIC. the main motivation, however, is accurately representing whether we want to block signals that might be handled by the application, or all signals.