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these changes still do not yield a fully-conforming abort, but they
fix two known issues:
- per POSIX, termination via SIGKILL is not "abnormal", but both ISO C
and POSIX require abort to yield abnormal termination.
- raising SIGKILL fails to do anything to pid 1 in some containers.
now, the trapping instruction produced by a_crash() is expected to
produce abnormal termination, without the risk of invoking a signal
handler since SIGILL and SIGSEGV are blocked, and _Exit, which
contains an infinite loop analogous to the one being removed from
abort itself, is used as a last resort.
this implementation still fails to produce an exit status as if the
process terminated via SIGABRT in cases where SIGABRT is blocked or
ignored, but fixing that is not easy; the obvious pseudo-solutions all
have subtle race conditions where a concurrent fork or exec can expose
incorrect signal state.
this is possible with the new build system that allows src/*/$(ARCH)/*
files which do not shadow a file in the parent directory, and yields a
more logical organization. eventually it will be possible to remove
arch/*/src from the build system.
commit ad1cd43a86645ba2d4f7c8747240452a349d6bc1 eliminated
preprocessor-level omission of references to the init/fini array
symbols from object files going into libc.so. the references are weak,
and the intent was that the linker would resolve them to zero in
libc.so, but instead it leaves undefined references that could be
satisfied at runtime. normally these references would be harmless,
since the code using them does not even get executed, but some older
binutils versions produce a linking error: when linking a program
against libc.so, ld first tries to use the hidden init/fini array
symbols produced by the linker script to satisfy the references in
libc.so, then produces an error because the definitions are hidden.
ideally ld would have already provided definitions of these symbols
when linking libc.so, but the linker script for -shared omits them.
to avoid this situation, the dynamic linker now provides its own dummy
definitions of the init/fini array symbols for libc.so. since they are
hidden, everything binds at ld time and no references remain in the
dynamic symbol table. with modern binutils and --gc-sections, both
the dummy empty array objects and the code referencing them get
dropped at link time, anyway.
the _init and _fini symbols are also switched back to using weak
definitions rather than weak references since the latter behave
somewhat problematically in general, and the weak definition approach
was known to work well.
use weak definitions that the dynamic linker can override instead of
preprocessor conditionals on SHARED so that the same libc start and
exit code can be used for both static and dynamic linking.
The old code accepted atexit handlers after exit, but did not run them
reliably. C11 seems to explicitly allow atexit to fail (and report
such failure) in this case, but this situation can easily come up in
C++ if a destructor has a local static object with a destructor so it
should be handled.
Note that the memory usage can grow linearly with the overall number
of registered atexit handlers instead of with the worst case list
length. (This only matters if atexit handlers keep registering atexit
handlers which should not happen in practice).
Commit message/rationale based on text by Szabolcs Nagy.
the memory model we use internally for atomics permits plain loads of
values which may be subject to concurrent modification without
requiring that a special load function be used. since a compiler is
free to make transformations that alter the number of loads or the way
in which loads are performed, the compiler is theoretically free to
break this usage. the most obvious concern is with atomic cas
constructs: something of the form tmp=*p;a_cas(p,tmp,f(tmp)); could be
transformed to a_cas(p,*p,f(*p)); where the latter is intended to show
multiple loads of *p whose resulting values might fail to be equal;
this would break the atomicity of the whole operation. but even more
fundamental breakage is possible.
with the changes being made now, objects that may be modified by
atomics are modeled as volatile, and the atomic operations performed
on them by other threads are modeled as asynchronous stores by
hardware which happens to be acting on the request of another thread.
such modeling of course does not itself address memory synchronization
between cores/cpus, but that aspect was already handled. this all
seems less than ideal, but it's the best we can do without mandating a
C11 compiler and using the C11 model for atomics.
in the case of pthread_once_t, the ABI type of the underlying object
is not volatile-qualified. so we are assuming that accessing the
object through a volatile-qualified lvalue via casts yields volatile
access semantics. the language of the C standard is somewhat unclear
on this matter, but this is an assumption the linux kernel also makes,
and seems to be the correct interpretation of the standard.
this was originally added as a cheap but portable way to quell
warnings about reaching the end of a function that does not return,
but since _Exit is marked _Noreturn, it's not needed. removing it
makes the call to _Exit into a tail call and shaves off a few bytes of
code from minimal static programs.
the purpose of this logic is to avoid linking __stdio_exit unless any
stdio reads (which might require repositioning the file offset at exit
time) or writes (which might require flushing at exit time) could have
previously, exit called two wrapper functions for __stdio_exit named
__flush_on_exit and __seek_on_exit. both of these functions actually
performed both tasks (seek and flushing) by calling the underlying
__stdio_exit. in order to avoid doing this twice, an overridable data
object __towrite_used was used to cause __seek_on_exit to act as a nop
when __towrite was linked.
now, exit only makes one call, directly to __stdio_exit. this is
satisfiable by a weak dummy definition in exit.c, but the real
definition is pulled in by either __toread.c or __towrite.c through
their referencing a symbol which is defined only in __stdio_exit.c.
calling exit more than once invokes undefined behavior. in some cases
it's desirable to detect undefined behavior and diagnose it via a
predictable crash, but the code here was silently covering up an
uncommon case (exit from more than one thread) and turning a much more
common case (recursive calls to exit) into a permanent hang.
modern (4.7.x and later) gcc uses init/fini arrays, rather than the
legacy _init/_fini function pasting and crtbegin/crtend ctors/dtors
system, on most or all archs. some archs had already switched a long
time ago. without following this change, global ctors/dtors will cease
to work under musl when building with new gcc versions.
the most surprising part of this patch is that it actually reduces the
size of the init code, for both static and shared libc. this is
achieved by (1) unifying the handling main program and shared
libraries in the dynamic linker, and (2) eliminating the
glibc-inspired rube goldberg machine for passing around init and fini
function pointers. to clarify, some background:
the function signature for __libc_start_main was based on glibc, as
part of the original goal of being able to run some glibc-linked
binaries. it worked by having the crt1 code, which is linked into
every application, static or dynamic, obtain and pass pointers to the
init and fini functions, which __libc_start_main is then responsible
for using and recording for later use, as necessary. however, in
neither the static-linked nor dynamic-linked case do we actually need
crt1.o's help. with dynamic linking, all the pointers are available in
the _DYNAMIC block. with static linking, it's safe to simply access
the _init/_fini and __init_array_start, etc. symbols directly.
obviously changing the __libc_start_main function signature in an
incompatible way would break both old musl-linked programs and
glibc-linked programs, so let's not do that. instead, the function can
just ignore the information it doesn't need. new archs need not even
provide the useless args in their versions of crt1.o. existing archs
should continue to provide it as long as there is an interest in
having newly-linked applications be able to run on old versions of
musl; at some point in the future, this support can be removed.
for _Noreturn functions, gcc generates code that trashes the
stack frame, and so it makes it impossible to inspect the causes
of an assert error in gdb.
abort() is not affected (i have not yet investigated why).
note that POSIX does not specify these functions as _Noreturn, because
POSIX is aligned with C99, not the new C11 standard. when POSIX is
eventually updated to C11, it will almost surely give these functions
the _Noreturn attribute. for now, the actual _Noreturn keyword is not
used anyway when compiling with a c99 compiler, which is what POSIX
requires; the GCC __attribute__ is used instead if it's available,
in a few places, I've added infinite for loops at the end of _Noreturn
functions to silence compiler warnings. presumably
__buildin_unreachable could achieve the same thing, but it would only
work on newer GCCs and would not be portable. the loops should have
near-zero code size cost anyway.
like the previous _Noreturn commit, this one is based on patches
contributed by philomath.
for seekable files, posix imposed requirements on the offset of the
underlying open file description after a stream is closed. this was
correctly handled (as a side effect of the unconditional fflush call)
when streams were explicitly closed by fclose, but was not handled
correctly at program exit time, where fflush(0) was being used.
the weak symbol hackery is to pull in __stdio_exit if either of
__toread or __towrite is used, but avoid calling it twice so we don't
have to keep extra state. the new __stdio_exit is a streamlined fflush
variant that avoids performing any unnecessary operations and which
never unlocks the files or open file list, so we can be sure no other
threads write new data to a stream's buffer after it's already
this is required in case dtors use stdio.
also remove the old comments; one was cruft from when the code used to
be using function pointers and conditional calls, and has little
motivation now that we're using weak symbols. the other was just
complaining about having to support dtors even though the cost was
made essentially zero in the non-use case by the way it's done here.
Per POSIX, "The abort() function shall cause abnormal process
termination to occur, unless the signal SIGABRT is being caught and
the signal handler does not return."
If SIGABRT is blocked or if a signal handler is installed and does
return, abort is still required to cause abnormal program termination.
We cannot use a_crash() to do this, since a SIGILL handler could also
be installed (and might even longjmp out of the abort, not expecting
to be invoked from within abort), nor can we rely on resetting the
signal handler and re-raising the signal (this has race conditions in
multi-threaded programs). On the other hand, SIGKILL is a perfectly
safe, unblockable way to obtain abnormal program termination, and it
requires no ugly loop-and-retry logic.
there's no sense in using a powerful lock in exit, because it will
never be unlocked. a thread that arrives at exit while exit is already
in progress just needs to hang forever. use the pause syscall for this
because it's cheap and easy and universally available.
i did some testing trying to switch malloc to use the new internal
lock with priority inheritance, and my malloc contention test got
20-100 times slower. if priority inheritance futexes are this slow,
it's simply too high a price to pay for avoiding priority inversion.
maybe we can consider them somewhere down the road once the kernel
folks get their act together on this (and perferably don't link it to
glibc's inefficient lock API)...
as such, i've switch __lock to use malloc's implementation of
lightweight locks, and updated all the users of the code to use an
array with a waiter count for their locks. this should give optimal
performance in the vast majority of cases, and it's simple.
malloc is still using its own internal copy of the lock code because
it seems to yield measurably better performance with -O3 when it's
inlined (20% or more difference in the contention stress test).
musl's dynamic linker does not support unloading dsos, so there's
nothing for this function to do. adding the symbol in case anything
depends on its presence..
mildly tested; may have bugs. the locking should be updated not to use
spinlocks but that's outside the scope of this one module.
the biggest change in this commit is that stdio now uses readv to fill
the caller's buffer and the FILE buffer with a single syscall, and
likewise writev to flush the FILE buffer and write out the caller's
buffer in a single syscall.
making this change required fundamental architectural changes to
stdio, so i also made a number of other improvements in the process:
- the implementation no longer assumes that further io will fail
following errors, and no longer blocks io when the error flag is set
(though the latter could easily be changed back if desired)
- unbuffered mode is no longer implemented as a one-byte buffer. as a
consequence, scanf unreading has to use ungetc, to the unget buffer
has been enlarged to hold at least 2 wide characters.
- the FILE structure has been rearranged to maintain the locations of
the fields that might be used in glibc getc/putc type macros, while
shrinking the structure to save some space.
- error cases for fflush, fseek, etc. should be more correct.
- library-internal macros are used for getc_unlocked and putc_unlocked
now, eliminating some ugly code duplication. __uflow and __overflow
are no longer used anywhere but these macros. switch to read or
write mode is also separated so the code can be better shared, e.g.
- lots of other small things.
with this patch, the syscallN() functions are no longer needed; a
variadic syscall() macro allows syscalls with anywhere from 0 to 6
arguments to be made with a single macro name. also, manually casting
each non-integer argument with (long) is no longer necessary; the
casts are hidden in the macros.
some source files which depended on being able to define the old macro
SYSCALL_RETURNS_ERRNO have been modified to directly use __syscall()
instead of syscall(). references to SYSCALL_SIGSET_SIZE and SYSCALL_LL
have also been changed.
x86_64 has not been tested, and may need a follow-up commit to fix any