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when the kernel is responsible for waking waiters on a robust mutex
whose owner died, it does not have a waiters count available and must
rely entirely on the waiter bit of the lock value.
normally, this bit is only set by newly arriving waiters, so it will
be clear if no new waiters arrived after the current owner obtained
the lock, even if there are other waiters present. leaving it clear is
desirable because it allows timed-lock operations to remove themselves
as waiters and avoid causing unnecessary futex wake syscalls. however,
for process-shared robust mutexes, we need to set the bit whenever
there are existing waiters so that the kernel will know to wake them.
for non-process-shared robust mutexes, the wake happens in userspace
and can look at the waiters count, so the bit does not need to be set
in the non-process-shared case.
when manipulating the robust list, the order of stores matters,
because the code may be asynchronously interrupted by a fatal signal
and the kernel will then access the robust list in what is essentially
an async-signal context.
previously, aliasing considerations made it seem unlikely that a
compiler could reorder the stores, but proving that they could not be
reordered incorrectly would have been extremely difficult. instead
I've opted to make all the pointers used as part of the robust list,
including those in the robust list head and in the individual mutexes,
in addition, the format of the robust list has been changed to point
back to the head at the end, rather than ending with a null pointer.
this is to match the documented kernel robust list ABI. the null
pointer, which was previously used, only worked because faults during
access terminate the robust list processing.
a robust mutex should not enter the unrecoverable status until it's
unlocked without marking it consistent. previously, flag 8 in the type
was used as an indication of unrecoverable, but only honored after
successful locking; this resulted in a race window where the
unrecoverable mutex could appear to a second thread as locked/busy
again while the first thread was in the process of observing it as
now, flag 8 is used to mean that the mutex is in the process of being
recovered, but not yet marked consistent. the flag only takes effect
in pthread_mutex_unlock, where it causes the value 0x40000000 (owner
dead flag, with old owner tid 0, an otherwise impossible state) to be
stored in the lock. subsequent lock attempts will interpret this state
per the resolution of Austin Group issue 755, the POSIX requirement
that ownership be enforced for recursive and error-checking mutexes
does not allow a random new thread to acquire ownership of an orphaned
mutex just because it happened to be assigned the same tid as the
original owner that exited with the mutex locked.
one possible fix for this issue would be to disallow the kernel thread
to terminate when it exited with mutexes held, permanently reserving
the tid against reuse. however, this does not solve the problem for
process-shared mutexes where lifetime cannot be controlled, so it was
the alternate approach I've taken is to reuse the robust mutex system
for non-robust recursive and error-checking mutexes. when a thread
exits, the kernel (or the new userspace robust-list code added in
commit b092f1c5fa9c048e12d002c7b972df5ecbe96d1d) will set the
owner-died bit for these orphaned mutexes, but since the mutex-type is
not robust, pthread_mutex_trylock will not allow a new owner to
acquire them. instead, they remain in a state of being permanently
locked, as desired.
the whole point of this locking is to prevent munmap, or mmap with
MAP_FIXED, from deallocating virtual addresses, or changing the
backing a given virtual address refers to, during certain race windows
involving self-synchronized unmapping or destruction of pthread
synchronization objects. there is no need for exclusion in the other
direction, so it suffices to take the lock momentarily and release it
before making the syscall, rather than holding it across the syscall.
the kernel always uses non-private wake when walking the robust list
when a thread or process exits, so it's not able to wake waiters
listening with the private futex flag. this problem is solved by doing
the equivalent in userspace as the last step of pthread_exit.
care is taken to remove mutexes from the robust list before unlocking
them so that the kernel will not attempt to access them again,
possibly after another thread locks them. this removal code can treat
the list as singly-linked, since no further code which would add or
remove items is able to run at this point. moreover, the pending
pointer is not needed since the mutexes being unlocked are all
process-local; in the case of asynchronous process termination, they
all cease to exist.
since a process-local robust mutex cannot come into existence without
a call to pthread_mutexattr_setrobust in the same process, the code
for userspace robust list processing is put in that source file, and
a weak alias to a dummy function is used to avoid pulling in this
bloat as part of pthread_exit in static-linked programs.
private-futex uses the virtual address of the futex int directly as
the hash key rather than requiring the kernel to resolve the address
to an underlying backing for the mapping in which it lies. for certain
usage patterns it improves performance significantly.
in many places, the code using futex __wake and __wait operations was
already passing a correct fixed zero or nonzero flag for the priv
argument, so no change was needed at the site of the call, only in the
__wake and __wait functions themselves. in other places, especially
where the process-shared attribute for a synchronization object was
not previously tracked, additional new code is needed. for mutexes,
the only place to store the flag is in the type field, so additional
bit masking logic is needed for accessing the type.
for non-process-shared condition variable broadcasts, the futex
requeue operation is unable to requeue from a private futex to a
process-shared one in the mutex structure, so requeue is simply
disabled in this case by waking all waiters.
for robust mutexes, the kernel always performs a non-private wake when
the owner dies. in order not to introduce a behavioral regression in
non-process-shared robust mutexes (when the owning thread dies), they
are simply forced to be treated as process-shared for now, giving
correct behavior at the expense of performance. this can be fixed by
adding explicit code to pthread_exit to do the right thing for
non-shared robust mutexes in userspace rather than relying on the
kernel to do it, and will be fixed in this way later.
since not all supported kernels have private futex support, the new
code detects EINVAL from the futex syscall and falls back to making
the call without the private flag. no attempt to cache the result is
made; caching it and using the cached value efficiently is somewhat
difficult, and not worth the complexity when the benefits would be
seen only on ancient kernels which have numerous other limitations and
C99 6.10.3p11 disallows such constructs
so use an #ifdef outside of the argument list of __syscall
isspace can be a bottleneck in a simple parser, inlining it
gives slightly smaller and faster code
src/locale/pleval.o already had this optimization, the size
change for other libc functions for i386 is
src/internal/intscan.o 2134 2118 -16
src/locale/dcngettext.o 1562 1552 -10
src/network/res_msend.o 1961 1940 -21
src/network/lookup_name.o 2627 2608 -19
src/network/getnameinfo.o 1814 1811 -3
src/network/lookup_serv.o 643 624 -19
src/stdio/vfscanf.o 2675 2663 -12
src/stdlib/atoll.o 117 107 -10
src/stdlib/atoi.o 95 91 -4
src/stdlib/atol.o 95 91 -4
src/time/strptime.o 1515 1503 -12
(TOTALS) 432451 432321 -130
when the dynamic loader is disabled, dlopen fails correctly but dlerror
did not return a human readable error string like it should have.
glibc declares clearenv under _BSD_SOURCE, some applications might
depend on it being available this way.
The function originates from SunOS 4.x in which the null argument
is allowed. glibc also handles this case.
the code which loads locale files was already rejecting locale names
containing slashes. however, LC_MESSAGES records a locale name even if
libc does not have a matching locale file, so that gettext or
application code can use the recorded locale name for message
translations to languages that libc does not support. this recorded
name was not being checked for slashes, meaning that such code could
potentially be tricked into directory traversal.
in addition, since the value of a locale category is sometimes used as
a pathname component by callers, the improved code rejects any value
beginning with a dot. this prevents traversal to the parent directory
via "..", use of the top-level locale directory via ".", and also
avoids "hidden" directories as a side effect.
finally, overly long locale names are now rejected (treated as an
unrecognized name and thus as an alias for C.UTF-8) rather than being
per the resolution of Austin Group issue #617, these are accepted for
XSI option in POSIX future and thus I'm treating them as standard
per the standard, ffs is XSI shaded, whereas the other functions in
this header are in the base.
for or1k, the kernel expects the offset passed to mmap2 in units of
the 8k page size, not the standard unit of 4k used on most other
according to Stefan Kristiansson, or1k page size is not actually
variable and the value of 8192 is part of the ABI.
using an operator precedence parser the code size
became smaller and it is only slower by about %10
size of old vs new pleval.o on different archs:
(with inlined isspace added to pleval.c for now)
text data bss dec hex filename
828 0 0 828 33c pl.i386.o
1152 0 0 1152 480 pl.arm.o
1704 0 0 1704 6a8 pl.mips.o
1328 0 0 1328 530 pl.ppc.o
992 0 0 992 3e0 pl.x64.o
text data bss dec hex filename
693 0 0 693 2b5 pl.i386.o
972 0 0 972 3cc pl.arm.o
1276 0 0 1276 4fc pl.mips.o
1087 0 0 1087 43f pl.ppc.o
846 0 0 846 34e pl.x64.o
the previous implementations had several deficiencies, the most severe
of which was the inability to report unconfigured interfaces or
interfaces without ipv4 addresses. among the options discussed for
fixing this, using netlink turned out to be the one with the least
cost and most additional advantages. other improvements include:
if_nameindex now avoids duplicates in the list it produces, but still
includes legacy-style interface aliases if any are in use.
getifaddrs now reports hardware addresses and includes the scope_id
for link-local ipv6 addresses in the resulting address.
this commit changes the names to match the kernel names, exposing
under the normal names the "old" versions which work with a smaller
termios structure compatible with the userspace structure, and
renaming the "new" versions with "2" on the end like the kernel has.
this fixes spurious warnings "Unsupported ioctl: cmd=0x802c542a" from
qemu-sh4 and should be more correct anyway, since our userspace
termios structure does not have meaningful information in the part
which the kernel would be interpreting as speeds with the new ioctl.
const parsing, depth accounting and failure handling was changed
a bit so the generated code is slightly smaller.
while the __mo_lookup backend can verify that the translated message
ends with a null terminator, is has no way to know nplurals and thus
no way to verify that sufficiently many null terminators are present
in the string to satisfy all plural forms. the code in dcngettext was
already attempting to avoid reading past the end of the mo file
mapping, but failed to do so because the strlen call itself could
over-read. using strnlen instead allows us to avoid the problem.
rather than just checking that the start of the string lies within the
mapping, also check that the nominal length remains within the
mapping, and that the null terminator is present at the nominal
length. this ensures that the caller, using the result as a C string,
will not read past the end of the mapping.
the nominal length is never exposed to the caller, but it's useful
internally to find where the null terminator should be without having
to restort to linear search via strnlen/memchr.
the new code in dcngettext was written by me, and the expression
evaluator by Szabolcs Nagy (nsz).
this follows the same logic as in the previous commit for other archs.
the a_cas_l, a_swap_l, a_swap_p, and a_store_l operations were
probably used a long time ago when only i386 and x86_64 were
supported. as other archs were added, support for them was
inconsistent, and they are obviously not in use at present. having
them around potentially confuses readers working on new ports, and the
type-punning hacks and inconsistent use of types in their definitions
is not a style I wish to perpetuate in the source tree, so removing
them seems appropriate.
while other usage I've seen only has the synco instruction after the
atomic operation, I cannot find any documentation indicating that this
is correct. certainly all stores before the atomic need to have been
synchronized before the atomic operation takes place.
this commit replaces the stub implementations with working message
translation functions. translation units are factored so as to prevent
pulling in the legacy, non-library-safe functions which use a global
textdomain in modern code which is using the versions with an explicit
domain argument. bind_textdomain_codeset is also placed in its own
file since it should not be needed by most programs.
this implementation is still missing some features: the LANGUAGE
environment variable (for multiple fallback languages) is not honored,
and non-default plural-form rules are not supported. these issues will
be addressed in a later commit.
one notable difference from the GNU implementation is that there is no
default path for loading translation files. in principle one could be
added, but since the documented correct usage is to call the
bindtextdomain function, a default path is probably unnecessary.
for LC_MESSAGES, translation of strerror and similar literal message
functions is supported. for messages in other places (particularly the
dynamic linker) that use format strings, translation is not yet
supported. in order to make it possible and safe, such messages will
need to be refactored to separate the textual content from the format.
for LC_TIME, the day and month names and strftime-style format strings
provided by nl_langinfo are supported for translation. however there
may be limitations, as some of the original C-locale nl_langinfo
strings are non-unique and thus perhaps non-suitable as keys.
overall, the locale support activated by this commit should not be
seen as complete and polished but as a basis for beginning to test
locale functionality and implement locales.
these were removed from the standard but still offered as an extension
in langinfo.h, so nl_langinfo should support them.
due to a skipped slot and missing null terminator, the last few
strings were off by one or two slots from their item codes.
the core is based on a binary search; hash table is not used. both
native and reverse-endian mo files are supported. all offsets read
from the mapped mo file are checked against the mapping size to
prevent the possibility of reads outside the mapping.
this commit has no observable effects since there are not yet any
callers to the message translation code.
there is still no code which actually uses the loaded locale files, so
the main observable effect of this commit is that calls to setlocale
store and give back the names of the selected locales for the
remaining categories (LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY) if a locale
file by the requested name could be loaded.
per POSIX (XBD 8.2) LC_*/LANG environment variables set to to the
empty string are supposed to be treated as if they were not set at
they can be used to set or query if transparent huge pages are disabled.
introduced in linux 3.15 commit a0715cc22601e8830ace98366c0c2bd8da52af52
used by monitoring applications such as ss from iproute2
introduced in linux 3.15 commit 977cb0ecf82eb6d15562573c31edebf90db35163
ETH_P_80221 is ethertype for IEEE Std 802.21 - Media Independent Handover Protocol
introduced in linux 3.15 commit b62faf3cdc875a1ac5a10696cf6ea0b12bab1596
ETH_P_LOOPBACK is the correct packet type for loopback in IEEE 802.3*
introduced in linux 3.15 commit 61ccbb684421d374fdcd7cf5d6b024b06f03ce4e
some defines were shuffled to be in ascending order and match the kernel header
it's like rename but with flags eg. to allow atomic exchange of two files,
introduced in linux 3.15 commit 520c8b16505236fc82daa352e6c5e73cd9870cff
due to what was essentially a copy and paste error, the changes made
in commit f61be1f875a2758509d6e9e2cf6f1d9603b28b65 caused syscalls
with 5 or 6 arguments (and syscalls with 2, 3, or 4 arguments when
compiled with clang compatibility) to negate the returned error code a
second time, breaking errno reporting.
the mips version of this structure on the kernel side wrongly has
32-bit type rather than 64-bit type. fortunately there is adjacent
padding to bring it up to 64 bits, and on little-endian, this allows
us to treat the adjacent kernel st_dev and st_pad0 as as single
64-bit dev_t. however, on big endian, such treatment results in the
upper and lower 32-bit parts of the dev_t value being swapped. for the
purpose of just comparing st_dev values this did not break anything,
but it precluded actually processing the device numbers as major/minor
since the broken kernel behavior that needs to be worked around is
isolated to one arch, I put the workarounds in syscall_arch.h rather
than adding a stat fixup path in the common code. on little endian
mips, the added code optimizes out completely.
the changes necessary were incompatible with the way the __asm_syscall
macro was factored so I just removed it and flattened the individual
__syscallN functions. this arguably makes the code easier to read and
this function provides a way for third-party library code to use the
same logic that's used internally in libc for suppressing untrusted
input/state (e.g. the environment) when the application is running
with privleges elevated by the setuid or setgid bit or some other
mechanism. its semantics are intended to match the openbsd function by
the same name.
there was some question as to whether this function is necessary:
getauxval(AT_SECURE) was proposed as an alternative. however, this has
several drawbacks. the most obvious is that it asks programmers to be
aware of an implementation detail of ELF-based systems (the aux
vector) rather than simply the semantic predicate to be checked. and
trying to write a safe, reliable version of issetugid in terms of
getauxval is difficult. for example, early versions of the glibc
getauxval did not report ENOENT, which could lead to false negatives
if AT_SECURE was not present in the aux vector (this could probably
only happen when running on non-linux kernels under linux emulation,
since glibc does not support linux versions old enough to lack
AT_SECURE). as for musl, getauxval has always properly reported
errors, but prior to commit 7bece9c2095ee81f14b1088f6b0ba2f37fecb283,
the musl implementation did not emulate AT_SECURE if missing, which
would result in a false positive. since musl actually does partially
support kernels that lack AT_SECURE, this was problematic.
the intent is that library authors will use issetugid if its
availability is detected at build time, and only fall back to the
unreliable alternatives on systems that lack it.
patch by Brent Cook. commit message/rationale by Rich Felker.
at the very least, a compiler barrier is required no matter what, and
that was missing. current or1k implementations have strong ordering,
but this is not guaranteed as part of the ISA, so some sort of
synchronizing operation is necessary.
in principle we should use l.msync, but due to misinterpretation of
the spec, it was wrongly treated as an optional instruction and is not
supported by some implementations. if future kernels trap it and treat
it as a nop (rather than illegal instruction) when the
hardware/emulator does not support it, we could consider using it.
in the absence of l.msync support, the l.lwa/l.swa instructions, which
are specified to have a built-in l.msync, need to be used. the easiest
way to use them to implement atomic store is to perform an atomic swap
and throw away the result. using compare-and-swap would be lighter,
and would probably be sufficient for all actual usage cases, but
checking this is difficult and error-prone:
with store implemented in terms of swap, it's guaranteed that, when
another atomic operation is performed at the same time as the store,
either the result of the store followed by the other operation, or
just the store (clobbering the other operation's result) is seen. if
store were implemented in terms of cas, there are cases where this
invariant would fail to hold, and we would need detailed rules for the
situations in which the store operation is well-defined.
as far as I can tell, microblaze is strongly ordered, but this does
not seem to be well-documented and the assumption may need revisiting.
even with strong ordering, however, a volatile C assignment is not
sufficient to implement atomic store, since it does not preclude
reordering by the compiler with respect to non-volatile stores and
simply flanking a C store with empty volatile asm blocks with memory
clobbers would achieve the desired result, but is likely to result in
worse code generation, since the address and value for the store may
need to be spilled. actually writing the store in asm, so that there's
only one asm block, should give optimal code generation while
satisfying the requirement for having a compiler barrier.