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due to what was essentially a copy and paste error, the changes made
in commit f61be1f875a2758509d6e9e2cf6f1d9603b28b65 caused syscalls
with 5 or 6 arguments (and syscalls with 2, 3, or 4 arguments when
compiled with clang compatibility) to negate the returned error code a
second time, breaking errno reporting.
the mips version of this structure on the kernel side wrongly has
32-bit type rather than 64-bit type. fortunately there is adjacent
padding to bring it up to 64 bits, and on little-endian, this allows
us to treat the adjacent kernel st_dev and st_pad0 as as single
64-bit dev_t. however, on big endian, such treatment results in the
upper and lower 32-bit parts of the dev_t value being swapped. for the
purpose of just comparing st_dev values this did not break anything,
but it precluded actually processing the device numbers as major/minor
since the broken kernel behavior that needs to be worked around is
isolated to one arch, I put the workarounds in syscall_arch.h rather
than adding a stat fixup path in the common code. on little endian
mips, the added code optimizes out completely.
the changes necessary were incompatible with the way the __asm_syscall
macro was factored so I just removed it and flattened the individual
__syscallN functions. this arguably makes the code easier to read and
this function provides a way for third-party library code to use the
same logic that's used internally in libc for suppressing untrusted
input/state (e.g. the environment) when the application is running
with privleges elevated by the setuid or setgid bit or some other
mechanism. its semantics are intended to match the openbsd function by
the same name.
there was some question as to whether this function is necessary:
getauxval(AT_SECURE) was proposed as an alternative. however, this has
several drawbacks. the most obvious is that it asks programmers to be
aware of an implementation detail of ELF-based systems (the aux
vector) rather than simply the semantic predicate to be checked. and
trying to write a safe, reliable version of issetugid in terms of
getauxval is difficult. for example, early versions of the glibc
getauxval did not report ENOENT, which could lead to false negatives
if AT_SECURE was not present in the aux vector (this could probably
only happen when running on non-linux kernels under linux emulation,
since glibc does not support linux versions old enough to lack
AT_SECURE). as for musl, getauxval has always properly reported
errors, but prior to commit 7bece9c2095ee81f14b1088f6b0ba2f37fecb283,
the musl implementation did not emulate AT_SECURE if missing, which
would result in a false positive. since musl actually does partially
support kernels that lack AT_SECURE, this was problematic.
the intent is that library authors will use issetugid if its
availability is detected at build time, and only fall back to the
unreliable alternatives on systems that lack it.
patch by Brent Cook. commit message/rationale by Rich Felker.
at the very least, a compiler barrier is required no matter what, and
that was missing. current or1k implementations have strong ordering,
but this is not guaranteed as part of the ISA, so some sort of
synchronizing operation is necessary.
in principle we should use l.msync, but due to misinterpretation of
the spec, it was wrongly treated as an optional instruction and is not
supported by some implementations. if future kernels trap it and treat
it as a nop (rather than illegal instruction) when the
hardware/emulator does not support it, we could consider using it.
in the absence of l.msync support, the l.lwa/l.swa instructions, which
are specified to have a built-in l.msync, need to be used. the easiest
way to use them to implement atomic store is to perform an atomic swap
and throw away the result. using compare-and-swap would be lighter,
and would probably be sufficient for all actual usage cases, but
checking this is difficult and error-prone:
with store implemented in terms of swap, it's guaranteed that, when
another atomic operation is performed at the same time as the store,
either the result of the store followed by the other operation, or
just the store (clobbering the other operation's result) is seen. if
store were implemented in terms of cas, there are cases where this
invariant would fail to hold, and we would need detailed rules for the
situations in which the store operation is well-defined.
as far as I can tell, microblaze is strongly ordered, but this does
not seem to be well-documented and the assumption may need revisiting.
even with strong ordering, however, a volatile C assignment is not
sufficient to implement atomic store, since it does not preclude
reordering by the compiler with respect to non-volatile stores and
simply flanking a C store with empty volatile asm blocks with memory
clobbers would achieve the desired result, but is likely to result in
worse code generation, since the address and value for the store may
need to be spilled. actually writing the store in asm, so that there's
only one asm block, should give optimal code generation while
satisfying the requirement for having a compiler barrier.
previously I had wrongly assumed the ll/sc instructions also provided
memory synchronization; apparently they do not. this commit adds sync
instructions before and after each atomic operation and changes the
atomic store to simply use sync before and after a plain store, rather
than a useless compare-and-swap.
despite lacking the semantic content that the asm accesses the
pointed-to object rather than just using its address as a value, the
mips asm was not actually broken. the asm blocks were declared
volatile, meaning that the compiler must treat them as having unknown
however changing the asm to use memory constraints is desirable not
just from a semantic correctness and consistency standpoint, but also
produces better code. the compiler is able to use base/offset
addressing expressions for the atomic object's address rather than
having to load the address into a single register. this improves
access to global locks in static libc, and access to non-zero-offset
atomic fields in synchronization primitives, etc.
due to a mistake in my testing procedure, the changes in the previous
commit were not correctly tested and wrongly assumed to be valid. the
lwarx and stwcx. instructions do not accept general ppc memory address
expressions and thus the argument associated with the memory
constraint cannot be used directly.
instead, the memory constraint can be left as an argument that the asm
does not actually use, and the address can be provided in a separate
the register constraint for the address to be accessed did not convey
that the asm can access the pointed-to object. as far as the compiler
could tell, the result of the asm was just a pure function of the
address and the values passed in, and thus the asm could be hoisted
out of loops or omitted entirely if the result was not used.
this code path is used only on archs without the plain, non-at
syscalls, and only when the fstat syscall fails with EBADF on a valid
file descriptor. this in turn can happen only for O_PATH file
descriptors, and may not happen at all on the newer kernels needed for
supporting such archs.
with the flags argument omitted, spurious fstat failures may happen
when the argument register happens to have the AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW bit
the erroneous definition was missed because with works with qemu
user-level emulation, which also has the wrong definition. the actual
kernel uses the asm-generic generic definition.
With the exception of a fenv implementation, the port is fully featured.
The port has been tested in or1ksim, the golden reference functional
simulator for OpenRISC 1000.
It passes all libc-test tests (except the math tests that
requires a fenv implementation).
The port assumes an or1k implementation that has support for
atomic instructions (l.lwa/l.swa).
Although it passes all the libc-test tests, the port is still
in an experimental state, and has yet experienced very little
this could happen on 2.4-series linux kernels that predate AT_SECURE
and possibly on other kernels that are emulating the linux syscall API
but not providing AT_SECURE in the aux vector at startup.
in principle applications should be checking errno anyway, but this
does not really work. to be secure, the caller would have to treat
ENOENT (indeterminate result) as possibly-suid and thereby disable
functionality in the typical non-suid usage case. and since glibc only
runs on kernels that provide AT_SECURE, applications written to the
glibc getauxval API might simply assume it succeeds.
this was originally added as a cheap but portable way to quell
warnings about reaching the end of a function that does not return,
but since _Exit is marked _Noreturn, it's not needed. removing it
makes the call to _Exit into a tail call and shaves off a few bytes of
code from minimal static programs.
per POSIX, the nmatch and pmatch arguments are ignored when the regex
was compiled with REG_NOSUB.
previously we detected this bug in configure and issued advice for a
workaround, but this turned out not to work. since then gcc 4.9.0 has
appeared in several distributions, and now 4.9.1 has been released
without a fix despite this being a wrong code generation bug which is
supposed to be a release-blocker, per gcc policy.
since the scope of the bug seems to affect only data objects (rather
than functions) whose definitions are overridable, and there are only
a very small number of these in musl, I am just changing them from
const to volatile for the time being. simply removing the const would
be sufficient to make gcc 4.9.1 work (the non-const case was
inadvertently fixed as part of another change in gcc), and this would
also be sufficient with 4.9.0 if we forced -O0 on the affected files
or on the whole build. however it's cleaner to just remove all the
broken compiler detection and use volatile, which will ensure that
they are never constant-folded. the quality of a non-broken compiler's
output should not be affected except for the fact that these objects
are no longer const and thus possibly add a few bytes to data/bss.
this change can be reconsidered and possibly reverted at some point in
the future when the broken gcc versions are no longer relevant.
the purpose of this logic is to avoid linking __stdio_exit unless any
stdio reads (which might require repositioning the file offset at exit
time) or writes (which might require flushing at exit time) could have
previously, exit called two wrapper functions for __stdio_exit named
__flush_on_exit and __seek_on_exit. both of these functions actually
performed both tasks (seek and flushing) by calling the underlying
__stdio_exit. in order to avoid doing this twice, an overridable data
object __towrite_used was used to cause __seek_on_exit to act as a nop
when __towrite was linked.
now, exit only makes one call, directly to __stdio_exit. this is
satisfiable by a weak dummy definition in exit.c, but the real
definition is pulled in by either __toread.c or __towrite.c through
their referencing a symbol which is defined only in __stdio_exit.c.
this was previously a no-op, somewhat intentionally, because I failed
to understand that it only has an effect when sending to the logging
facility fails and thus is not the nuisance that it would be if always
sent output to the console.
this behavior is no longer valid in general, and was never necessary.
if the LOG_PERROR option is set, output to stderr could still succeed.
also, when the LOG_CONS option is added, it will need syslog to
proceed even if opening the log socket fails.
this is a nonstandard feature, but easy and inexpensive to add. since
the corresponding macro has always been defined in our syslog.h, it
makes sense to actually support it. applications may reasonably be
using the presence of the macro to assume that the feature is
the behavior of omitting the 'header' part of the log message does not
seem to be well-documented, but matches other implementations (at
least glibc) which have this option.
based on a patch by Clément Vasseur, but simplified using %n.
errno must be saved upon vsyslog entry, otherwise its value could be
changed by some libc function before reaching the %m handler in
previously passing an empty string for name resulted in failure, as
expected, but only after spurious syscalls, and it produced confusing
errno values (and thus dlerror strings).
in addition to dlopen calls, this issue affected use of LD_PRELOAD
with trailing whitespace or colon characters.
r24 was wrongly being saved at a misaligned offset of 30 rather than
the correct offset of 40 in the jmp_buf. the exact effects of this
error have not been studied, but it's clear that the value of r24 was
lost across setjmp/longjmp and the saved values of r21 and/or r22 may
also have been corrupted.
if the order of object files in the static archive libc.a was not
respected by the linker, the old logic could wrongly cause POSIX
symbols outside of the ISO C namespace to be pulled into pure C
programs. this should not happen with well-behaved linkers, but
relying on the link order was a bad idea anyway.
files are renamed to better reflect their contents now that they don't
need names to control their order as members in the archive file.
1. failure to output a newline after the password is read
2. fd leaks via missing FD_CLOEXEC
3. fd leaks via failure-to-close when any of the standard streams are
closed at the time of the call
4. wrongful fallback to use of stdin when opening /dev/tty fails
5. wrongful use of stderr rather than /dev/tty for prompt
6. failure to report error reading password
the main motivation for this change is to remove the assumption that
the tid of the main thread is also the pid of the process. (the value
returned by the set_tid_address syscall was used to fill both fields
despite it semantically being the tid.) this is historically and
presently true on linux and unlikely to change, but it conceivably
could be false on other systems that otherwise reproduce the linux
only a few parts of the code were actually still using the cached pid.
in a couple places (aio and synccall) it was a minor optimization to
avoid a syscall. caching could be reintroduced, but lazily as part of
the public getpid function rather than at program startup, if it's
deemed important for performance later. in other places (cancellation
and pthread_kill) the pid was completely unnecessary; the tkill
syscall can be used instead of tgkill. this is actually a rather
subtle issue, since tgkill is supposedly a solution to race conditions
that can affect use of tkill. however, as documented in the commit
message for commit 7779dbd2663269b465951189b4f43e70839bc073, tgkill
does not actually solve this race; it just limits it to happening
within one process rather than between processes. we use a lock that
avoids the race in pthread_kill, and the use in the cancellation
signal handler is self-targeted and thus not subject to tid reuse
races, so both are safe regardless of which syscall (tgkill or tkill)
this change is presently non-functional since the callees do not yet
use their locale argument for anything.
this is mainly done for consistency with the ctype functions and to
declutter the src/locale directory.
the main practical purposes of this commit are to remove a huge amount
of clutter from the src/locale directory, to cut down on the length of
the $(AR) and $(LD) command lines, and to reduce the amount of space
wasted by object file headers in the static libc.a. build time may
also be reduced, though this has not been measured.
as an additional justification, if there ever were a need for the
behavior of these functions to vary by locale, it would be necessary
for the non-_l versions to call the _l versions, so that linking the
former without the latter would not be possible anyway.
this commit adds non-stub implementations of setlocale, duplocale,
newlocale, and uselocale, along with the data structures and minimal
code needed for representing the active locale on a per-thread basis
and optimizing the common case where thread-local locale settings are
not in use.
at this point, the data structures only contain what is necessary to
represent LC_CTYPE (a single flag) and LC_MESSAGES (a name for use in
finding message translation files). representation for the other
categories will be added later; the expectation is that a single
pointer will suffice for each.
for LC_CTYPE, the strings "C" and "POSIX" are treated as special; any
other string is accepted and treated as "C.UTF-8". for other
categories, any string is accepted after being truncated to a maximum
supported length (currently 15 bytes). for LC_MESSAGES, the name is
kept regardless of whether libc itself can use such a message
translation locale, since applications using catgets or gettext should
be able to use message locales libc is not aware of. for other
categories, names which are not successfully loaded as locales (which,
at present, means all names) are treated as aliases for "C". setlocale
locale settings are not yet used anywhere, so this commit should have
no visible effects except for the contents of the string returned by
in some cases, these functions internally call a byte-based input or
output function before calling getwc/putwc, so they cannot rely on the
latter to set the orientation.
when the orientation of the stream was already set, fwide was
incorrectly returning its argument (the requested orientation) rather
than the actual orientation of the stream.
these functions were setting wc to point to wchar_t aliasing itself as
a "cheap" way to support null wc arguments. doing so was anything but
cheap, since even without the aliasing violation, it would limit the
compiler's ability to optimize.
making wc point to a dummy object is equally easy and does not suffer
from the above problems.
this issue caused the address of functions in shared libraries to
resolve to their PLT thunks in the main program rather than their
correct addresses. it was observed causing crashes, though the
mechanism of the crash was not thoroughly investigated. since the
issue is very subtle, it calls for some explanation:
on all well-behaved archs, GOT entries that belong to the PLT use a
special relocation type, typically called JMP_SLOT, so that the
dynamic linker can avoid having the jump destinations for the PLT
resolve to PLT thunks themselves (they also provide a definition for
the symbol, which must be used whenever the address of the function is
taken so that all DSOs see the same address).
however, the traditional mips PIC ABI lacked such a JMP_SLOT
relocation type, presumably because, due to the way PIC works, the
address of the PLT thunk was never needed and could always be ignored.
prior to commit adf94c19666e687a728bbf398f9a88ea4ea19996, the mips
version of reloc.h contained a hack that caused all symbol lookups to
be treated like JMP_SLOT, inhibiting undefined symbols from ever being
used to resolve symbolic relocations. this hack goes all the way back
to commit babf820180368f00742ec65b2050a82380d7c542, when the mips
dynamic linker was first made usable.
during the recent refactoring to eliminate arch-specific relocation
processing (commit adf94c19666e687a728bbf398f9a88ea4ea19996), this
hack was overlooked and no equivalent functionality was provided in
the new code.
fixing the problem is not as simple as adding back an equivalent hack,
since there is now also a "non-PIC ABI" that can be used for the main
executable, which actually does use a PLT. the closest thing to
official documentation I could find for this ABI is nonpic.txt,
attached to Message-ID: 20080701202236.GA1534@caradoc.them.org, which
can be found in the gcc mailing list archives and elsewhere. per this
document, undefined symbols corresponding to PLT thunks have the
STO_MIPS_PLT bit set in the symbol's st_other field. thus, I have
added an arch-specific rule for mips, applied at the find_sym level
rather than the relocation level, to reject undefined symbols with the
STO_MIPS_PLT bit clear.
the previous hack of treating all mips relocations as JMP_SLOT-like,
rather than rejecting the unwanted symbols in find_sym, probably also
caused dlsym to wrongly return PLT thunks in place of the correct
address of a function under at least some conditions. this should now
be fixed, at least for global-scope symbol lookups.
due to a mistake when refactoring the error printing for the dynamic
linker (commit 7c73cacd09a51a87484db5689864743e4984a84d), all messages
were suppressed and replaced by blank lines.
my old, out-of-tree release script that performed a clone rather than
using git archive checked the VERSION file to make sure that it
matched before doing a release. I believe there should be a way to do
the same with git commands (without resorting to checking out the
desired tag) but I have not yet found a way, so care should be taken
when using these targets that the correctness of the VERSION file is
iptables and quagga need them to work.
the renaming was previously applied to all real versions of the
function in commit 3fa2eb2aba8d6b54dec53e7ad4c37e17392b166f.
it should be noted that the "real" __sysv_signal, which we do not
implement, is semantically different from signal. references to
__sysv_signal arise in code built against glibc under certain
combinations of feature test macros, and are almost surely
unintentional since the legacy sysv signal behavior has fundamental
race conditions that cannot be worked around and which make it
impossible to use safely.
these are put alongside the similar functions for __xstat, etc. in
__xstat.c to avoid bloating the number of source files.